The Effects of the Station Rotation Model in Promoting Libyan Students’ EFL Writing: Blended Learning


  • Najah Belazi School of Languages, Literacies and Translation Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA
  • Malini Ganapathy School of Languages, Literacies and Translation Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA



Blended learning, Libya, SRM, technology, writing


In the new digital age, educational technology has been commonly integrated to improve educational practices. Despite the existence of basic facilities in secondary schools of Libya, the use of technology has not been officially encouraged and practiced by instructors. Likewise, there is no empirical account on how technology implementation could improve secondary school students’ writing performance. This study aimed to explore how students’ engagement in a Station Rotation Model (SRM) using a blended learning approach, could improve their writing performance. This study employed a quasi-experimental design, which includes 51 second-graders for the experimental (26 students) and control group (25 students) in a Libyan secondary state school in Alkhoms, Libya. The comparison of the students’ pre-test and post-test writing scores on a 300-word essay indicated a significant improvement in their performance. This study employed a qualitative instrument to investigate students’ perceptions of the SRM. The results of the focus group interviews further showed that the students had highly valued the online and collaborative aspects of the intervention for pleasure and pedagogical purposes. It was also found that the process-oriented view of learning is better demonstrated with an SRM writing course. The findings of this study can be a point of reference to stakeholders, teachers, curriculum designers and even students to develop an alternative writing approach to improve EFL students’ writing performance.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Najah Belazi, School of Languages, Literacies and Translation Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA

Najah Belazi is currently pursuing her PhD at the School of Languages, Literacies and Translation. Her research interest includes English Language Teaching.

Malini Ganapathy, School of Languages, Literacies and Translation Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang, MALAYSIA

Dr. Malini Ganapathy is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Languages, Literacies and Translation, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. She has a Certificate of Education (TESL), B.A. (Hons.) in English Language and Literature Studies, M.A. and Ph.D in Applied Linguistics from Universiti Sains Malaysia. She has 18 years of teaching experience in secondary schools prior to joining Universiti Sains Malaysia in 2014. Her research interests include Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), writing and literacy education. She has published numerous research articles focusing on her area of research, both in international and local journals.


Abdulkareem, M. N. (2013). An Investigation Study of Academic Writing Problems Faced by Arab Postgraduate Students at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 3(9). 1552-1557.

Abukhattala, I. (2016). The use of technology in language classrooms in Libya. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6(4), 262-267.

Adas, D. & Bakir, A. (2013). Writing difficulties and new solutions: Blended learning as an approach to improve writing abilities. International journal of humanities and social science, 3(9), 254-266.

Aldukhi, A. A. (2020). The Impact of Using the Station Rotation Model on Saudi EFL Learners’ Descriptive Writing Skills, Department of English Language & Literature, College of Languages and Translation, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic Uni-versity (M.A. Thesis).

Anggraini, R., Rozimela, Y., & Anwar, D. (2020). The effects of collaborative writing on EFL students’ writing skills and their perception of the strategy. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 11(2), 335-341.

Burton, J., & Caroll, M. (2001). Journal writing as an aid to self-awareness, autonomy and collaborative learning. In J. Burton & M. Caroll (Eds), Journal writing (pp. 1-7). Alex-andria, VA: TESOL Publications, Inc.

Chew, E., Jones, N., & Turner, D. (2008, August). Critical review of the blended learning models based on Maslow’s and Vygotsky’s educational theory. In International Con-ference on Hybrid Learning and Education (pp. 40-53). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Christensen, C., Horn, M., & Staker, H. (2013). Is K-12 blended learning disruptive: An in-troduction of the theory of hybrids. Recuperado del sitio de Internet del Clayton Christensen Institute: http://www. Christensen institute. org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/05. Is-K-12-Blended-Learning-Disruptive. pdf.

Cole J and Feng J, (2015). Effective strategies for improving writing skills of elementary Eng-lish language students, Chinese American Educational Research and Development Association Annual Conference, Chinese Am. Educ. Res. Dev. Assoc. Annu. Conf. p. 1–25.

Cooner, T. S. (2010). Creating opportunities for students in large cohorts to reflect in and on practice: Lessons learnt from a formative evaluation of students’ experiences of a technology‐enhanced blended learning design. British Journal of Educational Tech-nology, 41(2), 271-286.

Creswell, JW (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing among five ap-proaches (3rd ed.). London: Sage. Approaches Inductive.

Elabbar, A. A. (2017). National Libyan public education reform: Entire transformative strate-gies, 2020-2026. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(10), 1044-1057.

Elmabruk, R. (2011). Participation in blended learning environments: Scaffolding Libyan EFL teachers’ I-CPD in low-tech conditions. Journal of the Faculty of Arts, 18.

Elmadwi, S. (2015). Problems encountered by students at Al-Amal Secondary School in us-ing passive voice in written English. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sci-ence(IOSR-JHSS), 20(7), 32-38.

Elraggas, A. A. M. (2014). Libyan graduate students encounter English-writing difficulties while attending US universities. Indiana State University.

Ertmer, P. A., Otterbreit-Leftwich, A., Sadil, O., Sendurar, E., & Sendurar, P. (2012). Teach-er beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education, 59, 423-435.

Gibreel, M. (2017). An Investigation of Writing Difficulties among Second-Level Female Students at King Khalid University (Abha-Rijal Alma). University of Bakht Alruda Scientific Journal, 24, 1858-6139.

Gonzales, C., Pickett, L., Hupert, N., & Martin, W. (2002). The regional educational technol-ogy assistance program: Its effects on teaching practices. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35(1), 1-18.

Hill, J. R., & Hannafin, M. J. (2001). Teaching and learning in digital environments: The re-surgence of resource-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Develop-ment, 49(3), 37-52.

Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual-itative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288.

Jacobs, H. L. (1981). Testing ESL Composition: A Practical Approach. English Composition Program. Newbury House Publishers, Inc., Rowley, MA 01969.

Jamil, A., Aziz, M. S. A., & Razak, N. A. (2010). The utilisation of test-taking strategies among female students in a tertiary institution. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 10(3).

Khader, N. S. K. (2016). The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Improving Students' Achievement in Third Grade's Science in Bani Kenana. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(35), 109-116.

Kim Jun, A. (2013, March). Rotational Models Work for Any Classroom. Retrieved from

Kormos, j. (2012). The role of individual differences in L2 writing. Journa of Second Lan-guage Writing, 21(4). 390-403.

Kumi-Yeboah, A., & Smith, P. (2018). Trends of blended learning in k-12 schools: Challeng-es and possibilities. In Online Course Management: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 43-61). IGI Global.

Lalima, D. K., & Dangwal, K. L. (2017). Blended learning: An innovative ap-proach. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 129-136.

Martinez-Mesa, J., González-Chica, D. A., Duquia, R. P., Bonamigo, R. R., & Bastos, J. L. (2016). Sampling: how to select participants in my research study? Anais brasileiros de dermatologia, 91(3), 326-330.

Maxwell, C., & White, J. (2017). Blended (R) evolution: How 5 Teachers Are Modifying the Station Rotation to Fit Students' Needs. Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation.

Mehdi, M. F. (2018). Analysis of Errors Made by First Year Secondary School Students in Writing English Sentences: A Case Study of Libyan EFL Students.

Miller, J., Risser, M., & Griffiths, R. (2013). Student choice, instructor flexibility: Moving beyond the blended instructional model. Issues and trends in educational technolo-gy, 1(1), 8-24.

Nagy, A. H., & Mohammed, N. (2018). The Effect of Using the Station Rotation Model on Preparatory Students' Writing Performance. Online Submission.

Ngadiman, A. (2012). Effects of process oriented approach to teaching writing to English department students. Magister Scientiae, (31), 1-12.

Pathan, M. M., Al Khaiyali, A. T., & Marayl, Z. E. (2016). Teaching English as a foreign lan-guage in Libyan schools: Issues and challenges. International Journal of English and Education, 5(2), 19-39.

Rovai, A. P., & Jordan, H. (2004). Blended learning and sense of community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 5(2), 53-62.

Shalbag, R. & Belhaj, A. (2012). A case study on Libyan students' written discourse in Al Mergeeb University. Retrieved from

Shih, R. C. (2011). Can Web 2.0 technology assist college students in learning English writ-ing? Integrating Facebook and peer assessment with blended learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(5), 829-945.

Staker, H., & Horn, M. B. (2013). Blended Learning in the K12 Education Sector. Blended learning: Research perspectives, 2, 287-300.

Truitt, A. A., & Ku, H.-Y. (2018). A case study of third grade students’ perceptions of the station rotation blended learning model in the United States. Educational Media In-ternational, 55(2), 153–169.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.

Wei, Y., Shi, Y., Yang, H. H., & Liu, J. (2017, June). Blended learning versus traditional learning: a study on students’ learning achievements and academic press. In 2017 In-ternational Symposium on Educational Technology (ISET) (pp. 219-223). IEEE.

Weigle, S. C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zhang, X. (2018). Innovating selection and use of online writing resources for EFL students: A systemic functional linguistic perspective. International Journal of Emerging Tech-nologies in Learning, 13(9), 136-146.



How to Cite

Belazi, N., & Ganapathy, M. (2021). The Effects of the Station Rotation Model in Promoting Libyan Students’ EFL Writing: Blended Learning. AJELP: Asian Journal of English Language and Pedagogy, 9(1), 111–127.