Relationship between Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension
Keywords:metacognitive awareness, reading strategies, reading comprehension
The study aimed to investigate the level of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and its relationship with reading comprehension. The study was conducted on Diploma in TESL students at a private tertiary institution. Data was collected using the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) Version 1.0 by Mokhtari and Reichard (2002) and a reading comprehension test that the students must sit for as one of their assessments in their Reading and Writing course. The simple random sampling method was used and the number of students who participated in the study was 191 respondents. The level of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies was analyzed and the Pearson’s Product Moment correlation was employed to identify the correlation between the two variables. Overall, the result indicated that most of the respondents are aware of the various strategies that can assist them in reading comprehension. A further analysis revealed that the most preferred strategies are the ones under Problem-solving domain. In terms of its relationship with reading comprehension, the result indicated a positive correlation between the two variables indicating that metacognitive awareness of reading strategies plays a significant role in enhancing the students’ reading comprehension.
Afflerbach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61, 364-373.
Ahmadi, M. R., & Hairul, N. I. (2012). Reciprocal teaching as an important factor of improving reading comprehension. Journal of studies in education, 2(4), 153-173.
Ahmadi, M. R., Hairul, N. I., & Abdullah, M. K. (2013). The importance of metacognitive reading strategy awareness in reading comprehension. English Language Teaching, 6(10), 235-244.
Bentahar, A. (2012). Can ESL teachers teach reading metacognitive strategies? Idaho: Boise State University.
Davis, J. A. (1971). Elementary Survey Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Estacio, J. M. (2013). Bilingual readers' metacognitive strategies as predictors of reading comprehension. Philippines ESL Journal, 10, 179-199.
Fitrisia, D., Tan, K.-E., & Yusuf, Y. Q. (2015). Investigating metacognitive awareness of reading strategies to strengthen students' perfomance in raeding comprehension . Asia pacific journal of educators and education, 30, 15-30.
Iwai, Y. (2011). The effects of metacognitive reading strategies: Pedagogical implications for EFL/ESL teachers. The Reading Matrix 11(2), 150-159.
Jafarigohar, M., & Khanjani, A. (2014). Text difficulty effect on metacognitive reading strategy use among EFL learners. Journal of Language Studies, 14(2), 47-59.
Karbalaei, A. (2010). A comparison of the metacognitive reading strategies used by EFL and ESL readers. The Reading Matrix, 10(2), 168-180.
Kocaman, O., & Beskardesler, S. (2016). Metacognitive awareness of reading strategy use by English language teaching students in Turkish context: Sakarya University sample. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 6/2, 254-269.
Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language reading; A cross-linguistics approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lam, W. Y. (2008). Metacognitive strategy use: Accessing ESL learners' inner voices via stimulated recall. International Journal of Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 2(3), 207-223.
Li, F. (2010). A study of English reading strategies used by senior middle school students. Asian Social Science, 6(10), 184-192.
Lian, Z., & Seepho, S. (2012). Effect of MST (Metacognitive Strategy Training) on academic reading comprehension of Chinese EFL students. US-China Foreign Language, 10(2), 933-943.
Maasum, T. N., & Maaruf, N. (2012). Empowering ESL Readers with metacognitive reading strategies. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 1250-1258.
Madhumathi, P., & Ghosh, A. (2012). Awareness of reading strategy use of Indian ESL students and relationship with reading comprehension achievement. English Language Teaching, 5(12), 131-140.
Meniado, J. C. (2016). Metacognitive reading strategies, motivation and reading comprehension performance of Saudi EFL students. English Language Teaching, 9(3), 117-129.
Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. A. (2002). Assessing students' metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 249-259.
Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. (2004). Investigating the stratedig reading processes of first and second language readers in two different cultural contexts. System, 32, 379-394.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.
Phan, N. (2006). Effective reading. Retrieved from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/pta_october_06_np.php
Rahimi, M., & Katal, M. (2012). Metacognitive strategies awareness and success in learning English as a foreign language: An overview. Procedia - Social and Behavorial Sciences 31, 73-81.
Rastakhiz, M., & Safari, M. R. (2014). The relationship between Global Reading Strategies and Support Reading Strategies on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' reading comprehension ability. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4(4), 451-503.
Salataki, R., & Aykel, A. (2002). Possible effects of strategy instruction on L1 and L2 reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14, 1-17.
Sen, H. S. (2009). The relationship between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension. Procedia Social and Behavorial Sciences 1, 2301-2305.
Sheorey, R., & Mokhtari, K. (2001). Differences in the metacognitive awareness of reading strategies among native and non-native readers. System, 29, 431-449.
Shi, H. (2015). Exploring English language learners' needs and learning strategies in the university setting. Institute for Learning Styles Journal, Volume 1, 30-39.
Singhal, M. (2001). Reading proficiency, reading strategies, metacognitive awareness and L2 readers. Reading Matrix, 1-9.
Solak, E., & Altayli, F. (2014). The reading strategies used by perspective English teachers in Turkish EFL context. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 1(3), 78-89.
Soleimani, H., & Hajghani, S. (2013). The effect of teaching reading comprehension strategies on Iranian EFL pre-university students' reading comprehension ability. International Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 5(5), 594-600.
Tavakoli, H. (2014). The effectiveness of metacognitive strategy awareness in reading comprehension: The case of Iranian university EFL students. The Reading Matrix, 14(2), 314-335.
Tipamas, C. (2012). Thai adult EFL learners' metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 6(9), 83-95.
Wang, J., Spencer, K., Minjie, & Xing. (2009). Metacognitive beliefs and strategies in learning Chinese as a foreign language. System, 37(1), 46-56.
Yuksel, I., & Yuksel, I. (2012). Metacognitive awareness of academic reading strategies. Social and Behavorial Sciences, 31, 894-898.
Zare, P. (2012). Language learning strategies among EFL/ESL learners: A review of literature. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(5), 162-169.
Zhang, L., & Seepho, S. (2013). Metacognitive strategy use and academic reading achievement: insights from a Chinese context. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 10(1), 54-69.
Zhang, L. J., & Annul, S. (2008). The role of vocabulary in reading comprehension: The case of secondary school students learning English in Singapore. RELC Journal: A journal of language teaching and Research, 39, 51-76.