Effects of the Wall-Faced Seating Arrangement Strategy on the Behavioural Patterns of the Students in the Architecture Thesis Design Studio


  • Rahman Tafahomi Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Built Environment, College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda, REPUBLIC of RWANDA http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7172-1302




Architecture Design Studio, Behavioural Patterns, Wall-Faced Position, Seating Arrangement, Students


The results of the exercise on the Wall-Faced seating arrangement in an architecture thesis design studio reveal the positive effects on the progress, concentration, and design of the students. The seating arrangement encouraged the students for more design products and development through increase the sense of competition. The seating arrangement changed the concentration of the students from the central part of the studio as a location for social interaction toward the drawing board as the learning target of the studio with more concentration on the drawing boards. The seating arrangement changes the concentration from the people in the studio as subject to the drawing board and design development as the object. In the new seating from the level of the collaboration between the students enhanced and the students communicated consistency to enhance the level of the design project in the studio. The research findings reveal that the students present five behavioural patterns in the design studio in the seating arrangement including collaborative, individual, separated, isolated, and disruptive. The level of collaboration, sharing of design ideas, and design development in collaborative behaviour are sufficient and effective although the level fades out in the other behavioural patterns. 


Download data is not yet available.


Armstrong, N., & Chang, S. (2007). Location, location, location: Does seat location affect performance in large classes? Journal of College Science Teaching, 37(2), 54-58.

Bakare, T. V. (2012). Effect of seating arrangement on methodology in adult education classes in Lagos, Nigeria: implication for knowledge creation and capacity building. Journal of Educational Review, 5(3), 307-314.

Barrett, P., & Zhang, Y. (2013). A holistic, multi-level analysis identifying the impact of classroom design on pupils’ learning. Building and Environment, 59(12), 678-689.

Bicard, D. F., Ervin, A., Bicard, S. C., & Baylot, C. L. (2012). Differential effects of seating arrangement on disruptive behavior of fifty grade students during independent seatwork. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 407-411.

Bonnes, M., & Bonaiuto, M. (2002). Environmental Psychology: From Spatial-Physical Environment to Sustainable Development. In R. B. BECHTEL, & A. CHURCHMAN (Eds.), HANDBOOK OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (pp. 28-54). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Burke, M. A., & Sass, T. R. (2013). Classroom peer effects and student achievement. Journal of Labor Economics, 31, 51–82. doi:10.1086/666653.

Cheryan, S., Ziegler, S., Plaut, V. C., & Meltzoff1, A. N. (2014). Designing Classrooms to Maximize Student Achievement. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(1), 4-12.

Chinn, C. A. (2011). Educational Psychology: Understanding Students’ Thinking. Rutgers University: New Jersey.

Cinar, D. (2010). Classroom geography: Who sits where in the traditional classroom? Journal of International Social Research, 3(10), 200-212.

Doctoroff, S. (2001). Adapting the physical environment to meet the needs of all young children for play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(2), 105-110.

Dunn, R. S., & Dunn, K. J. (1979). Learning Styles/Teaching Styles: Should They ... Can They ... Be Matched? Educational Leadership, 36(4), 238-244.

Eugene, H. J., & Melaine, K. C. (2013). Classroom Seating Considerations for 21st Century Students and Faculty. Journal of Learning Spaces, 2(1), 1-13.

Ezzy, D. (2002). Qualitative Analysis: Practice and Innovation. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Fernandes, A. C., Huang, H., & Rinaldo, V. (2011). Does where a student sits really matter? The impact of seating locations on student classroom learning. International Journal of Applied Educational Studies, 10(1), 66-77.

Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., & Marshall, S. (2009). A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Enhancing Academic Practice. New York: Routledge.

Gremmen, M. C., VandenBerg, Y. H., Segers, E., & Cillessen, A. H. (2016). Considerations for classroom seating arrangements and the role of teacher characteristics and beliefs. Soc Psychol Educ, 19, 749–774. doi:DOI 10.1007/s11218-016-9353-y

Groat, L., & Wang, D. (2002). Architectural Research Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons INC.

Haghighi, M. M., & Jusan, M. M. (2012). Exploring Students Behavior on Seating Arrangements in Learning Environment: A Review. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 287-294.

Harvey, E. J., & Kenyon, M. C. (2013). Classroom Seating Considerations for 21st Century Students and Faculty. Journal of Learning Spaces, 2(1), 1-13.

Hemyari, C., Zomorodian, K., Ahrari, I., Tavana, S., Parva, M., Pakshir, K., . . . Sahraian, A. (2013). The mutual impact of personality traits on seating preference and educational achievement. European Journal of Psychological Education, 28, 863–877.

Hilal, S. U. (2014). Effects of Different Seating Arrangements n Learning Experience: the Case of Medium Sized Lecture Settings in Bilkent University. Ankara: İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University.

Kalinowski, S., & Taper, M. (2007). The effects of seat location on exam grades and student perceptions in an introductory biology class. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36(4), 54-57.

Kaya, N., & Burgess, B. (2007). Territoriality: seat preferences in different types of Classroom Environment 41 classroom arrangements. Environment and Behavior, 39, 859-861.

Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 193-212.

Kregenow, J. M., Rogers, M., & Price, M. F. (2011). Is there a “back” of the room when the teacher is in the middle? . Journal of College Science Teaching, 20(6), 45-51.

Lee, S. W. (2005). Encyclopaedia of School Psychology . Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.

Lippman, P. C. (2010). Can the physical environment have an impact on the learning environment? OECD, CELE Exchange, 1-7.

Marx, A., Fuhrer, U., & Hartig, T. (2000). Effects of classroom seating arrangements on children's question-asking. Learning Environments Research, 2(3), 249-263.

Moreno, R. (2010). Educational Psychology . New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Perkins, K. K., & Wieman, C. E. (2005). The surprising impact of seat location on student performance. Physics Teacher, 43, 30-33.

Regis, R. (2003). Sketchbook: Piazza di Spagna, Rome. In D. Watson, A. Plattus, & R. Shibley, Time-Saver Standards for Urban Design (pp. 441-448). New York: Mc Grow Hill.

Salkind, N. J. (2008). Encyclopaedia of Educational Psychology. London: SAGE.

Santrock, J. (2011). Educational psychology. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Silverman, D. (2004). Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice. New York: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Silverman, D. (2010). Doing Qualitative Research. New York: SAGE Publisher .

Simmons, K., Carpenter, L., Crenshaw, S., & Hinton, V. M. (2015). Exploration of Classroom Seating Arrangement and Student Behavior in a Second Grade Classroom. Georgia Educational Researcher, 12(1), 51-68.

Tafahomi, R. (2020). Educational Outcome of Students’ Group-Table Arrangement for Collaboration in Architectural Thesis Studio. LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 17(2), 22-46.

Tafahomi, R. (2021). Qualities of the Green Landscape in Primary Schools, Deficiencies and Opportunities for Health of the Pupils. J. Fundam. Appl . Sci, 13(2), 1093 -1116. doi:10.43 14/jfas.v13i2.25

Tafahomi, R., & Nadi, R. (2020). Derivation of a Design Solution for the Conservation of a Historical Payab in the Redevelopment of Doloeei, Gonabad. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 7(1), 1-9. doi:10.11113/ijbes.v7.n1.407

Tafahomi, R., & Nadi, R. (2020). Insight into the missing aspects of therapeutic landscape in psychological centers in Kigali, Rwanda. Cities & Health, 1-13. doi:10.1080/23748834.2020.1774035

Tanner, C. K. (2009). Effects of school design on student outcomes. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(3), 380-389.

Van den Berg, Y. H., & Cillessen, A. H. (2015). Peer status and classroom seating arrangements: A social relationship analysis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 130(2), 19-34.

Vander Schee, B. A. (2011). Marketing classroom spaces: Is it really better at the front? Marketing Education Review, 21(3), 201-210.

Wannarka, R., & Ruhl, K. (2008). Seating arrangements that promote positive academic and behavioral outcomes: a review of empirical research. Support for Learning, 23(2), 89-93.

Wasnock, D. P. (2010). Classroom Environment: Emphasis on Seating Arrangement. Mathematical and Computing Sciences Masters. Retrieved from http://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/mathcs_etd_masters/17

Wiles, W. J. (1978). Reassessing Personal Space in the Classroom. Southern Journal of Educational Research, 12(2), 111-114.

Williams, M., & Robert, L. B. (1997). Psychology for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Woolfolk, A. (2016). Educational Psychology. Boston: Pearson.

Xi, L., Yuan, Z., YunQui, B., & Chiang, F.-K. (2017). An Investigation of University Students’ Classroom Seating Choices. Journal of Learning Spaces, 6(3), 13-22.

Yang, Z., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Mino, L. (2013). A study on student perceptions of higher education classrooms: impact of classroom attributes on student satisfaction and performance. Building & Environment, 70(15), 171-188.

Zomorodian, K., Parva, M., Ahrari, I., Tavana, S., Hemyari, C., Pakshir, K., & Sahraian, A. (2012). The effect of seating preferences of the medical students on educational achievement. Medical Education Online, 17, 1-7.




How to Cite

Tafahomi, R. (2021). Effects of the Wall-Faced Seating Arrangement Strategy on the Behavioural Patterns of the Students in the Architecture Thesis Design Studio. Asian Journal of Assessment in Teaching and Learning, 11(1), 85–97. https://doi.org/10.37134/ajatel.vol11.1.8.2021