Effect of industrial work experience in developing Technical and Vocational Education undergraduates’ employability skills


  • Kelechi Reko Okoye Department of Technology and Vocational Education, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • James Edomwonyi Edokpolor Department of Social Science Education, Faculty of Arts and Education, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo State, Nigerian https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8085-9696




Employability skills, industrial work experience, SIWES, technical education, vocational education


This study aims to assess the effect of industrial work experience in developing employability skills among technical and vocational education undergraduates in Nigerian universities. Data were collected from 119 undergraduates of technical and vocational education (TVE) with a pre-and post-survey instrument. When compared with a paired sample t-test, the result showed that the employability skills possess by TVE undergraduates before and after exposure to industrial work experience significantly differ. When compared with the independent sample t-test, the result showed that the employability skills possess between male and female TVE undergraduates before exposure to industrial work experience does not significantly differ. When also compared with independent sample t-test, the result showed that the employability skills possess between male and female TVE undergraduates after exposure to industrial work experience significantly differ. This study has contributed to the existing literature concerning the effect of industrial work experience in developing employability skills among technical and vocational education undergraduates. This unique contribution would provide a better insights or understanding on how industrial work experience scheme help in developing employability skills among technical and vocational education undergraduates.


Download data is not yet available.


Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social-cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175-1184.

Bandura, A. (1992). Exercise of personal agency through the self-efficacy mechanism. In R. Schwartzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 3-38). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72 (1), 187-206.

Batt, C. (2015). Integrating experiential education into the law school curriculum. Elon Law Review, 7, 43–56.

Busson, S. (2020). Skills development and youth employability in West Africa: Observations on the state of TVET and good practices from Senegal, Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www.adeanet.org/sites/default/files/resources/report_africavf_compressed.pdf

Carter, N. M., & Williams, M. L. (2003). Comparing social feminism and liberal feminism: The case of new firm growth. In J. E. Butler (Ed.). New perspectives on women entrepreneurs (pp. 25– 50). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Cedercreutz, K., & Cates, C. (2010). Cooperative education at the University of Cincinnati: A strategic asset in evolution. Peer Review, 12 (4), 20-23.

Chbani, A., & Jaouane, A. (2017). Educational and career guidance in Morocco. In R. G. Sultana (Ed.). Career guidance and livelihood planning across the Mediterranean (pp. 107-122). Sense Publishers, Rotterdam.

Chopra, S., Khan, A., Mirsafian, M., & Golab, L. (2020). Gender differences in work-integrated learning experiences of STEM students: From applications to evaluations. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 21(3), 253-274.

Chottum, N., Kunchai, J., & Khampirat, B. (2018). Factors affecting willingness to communicate in English of Thai cooperative education students. In K. E. Zegwaard & M. Ford (Eds.). Refereed Proceedings of the 3rd International Research Symposium on Cooperative and Work-Integrated Education (pp. 23-29). Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato for the World Association for Cooperative Education (WACE).

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16 (3), 297-334.

Cifre, E., Vera, M., Sánchez-Cardona, I., & de Cuyper, N. (2018). Sex, gender identity, and perceived employability among Spanish employed and unemployed youngsters. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2467-2467.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Macmillan.

Edokpolor (2019). Gender differential effect of business education students’ human capital on sustainable economic development. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 9 (1), 40-54. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1356&context=jerap

Edokpolor, E. J., & Chukwuedo, S. O. (2018). Technical and vocational education and training students’ lifelong-career specific human capital: Gender consideration for sustainable development. International Journal of Gender Studies and Research, 6 (1), 51-61.

Edokpolor, J. E., & Egbri, J. N. (2017). Business education in Nigeria for value re-orientation: A strategic approach for poverty alleviation and national development. Journal of Educational Research and Review, 5 (3), 41-48. Retrieved from http://sciencewebpublishing.net/jerr/archive/2017/May/Abstract/Edokpolor%20and%20Egbri.htm

Ekpenyong, L. E. (2011). Foundations of technical vocational education: Evolution and practice for Nigerian students in TVE and adult education, policymakers & practitioners. Benin City: Ambik Press.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2013). National policy on education, Educational Research, and Development Council (NERDC) Press. Abuja, Nigeria.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2017). National employment policy: Objectives, measures, strategies, and institutional framework to meet the challenges of rising unemployment and underemployment. Retrieved from https://www.labour.gov.ng/Doc/NATIONAL_EMPLOYMENT_POLICY.pdf

Fischer, E. M., Reuber, A. R., & Dyke, L. S. (1993). A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8, 151–168.

Holmes, L. (2017). Graduate Employability: Future directions and debate. In M. Tomlinson & L. Holmes (Eds.), Graduate employability in context (pp. 359-369). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Industrial training fund (ITF) (2013). Industrial training fund, students’ industrial work experience scheme: Information and guidelines for students’ industrial work experience scheme. Gunda Printing Press. Abuja, Nigeria.

Hynie, M., Jensen, K., Johnny, M., Wedlock, J., & Phipps, D. (2011). Student internships bridge research to real-world problems. Education + Training, 53(1), 45-56.

Jackson, D. (2016). Re-conceptualizing graduate employability: The importance of pre-professional identity. Higher Education Research & Development, 35(5), 925-939.

Jackson, D., & Collings, D. (2018). The influence of work-integrated learning and paid work during studies on graduate employment and underemployment. Higher Education, 76 (3), 403-425.

Johnsen, G. J., & McMahon, R. (2005). Owner-manager gender, financial performance, and business growth amongst SMEs from Australia’s business longitudinal survey. International Small Business Journal, 23, 115–142.

Jung, C. G. (1931). Forward and commentary. In R. Wilhelm (Ed.). The secret of the golden flower. NY: Harcourt Brace & World.

Khampirat., Pop., & Bandaranaike (2019). Effectiveness of WIL in developing work skills in Thailand. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 20 (2), 127-146.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Levesque-Bristol, C., Knapp, T., & Fisher, B. (2010). The effectiveness of service-learning: It's not always what you think. Journal of Experiential Education, 33(3), 208-224.

Lim, S., Foo, Y. L., Yeo, M., Chan, C. Y. X., & Loh, H. T. (2020). Integrated work-study program: Students’ growth mindset and perception of change in work-related skills. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 21 (2), 103-115.

Melacarne, C. (2018). Supporting informal learning in higher education internships. In V. Boffo & M. Fedeli (Eds.). Employability & competencies innovative curricula for new professions (pp. 51-64). Firenze: Firenze University Press.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2018). Labour force statistics volume I: Unemployment and underemployment report. Retrieved from https://www.proshareng.com/admin/upload/reports/12246Q32018unemploymentbyState-proshare.pdf

OECD. (2016). Enhancing employability. Paris, FR: OECD.

Pop, C., & Khampirat, B. (2019). Self-assessment instrument to measure the competencies of Namibian graduates: Testing of validity and reliability. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 60, 130-139.

Sambell, R., Devine, A., Lo, J., & Lawlis, T. (2020). Work-integrated learning builds student identification of employability skills: Utilizing a food literacy education strategy. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 21 (1), 63-87.

Sa-Nguanmanasak, T., & Khampirat, B. (2019). Comparing employability skills of technical and vocational education students of Thailand and Malaysia: A case study of international industrial work-integrated learning. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 11(3), 94-109. Retrieved from https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/JTET/article/view/4280

Schüller, A & Bergami, R. (2011). Beyond industry placement: What happens after the VET business teacher returns to work? Journal of the Worldwide Forum on Education and Culture, 3 (1), 134–144.

Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (2008). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (3rd Ed.). Columbus, HO: Merrill.

Smith, K. (2010). Assessing the Practicum in teacher education – Do we want candidates and mentors to agree? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 36 (1/2), 36-41.

Smits, W. (2006). The quality of apprenticeship training. Education Economics, 14 (3), 329-344.

Suarta, M., Hardika, N. S., Sanjaya, G. N., & Arjana, W. B. (2014). Employability skills for entry-level workers: alumni, supervisors, and lecturer's perceptions. Journal of Asian Vocational Education and Training, 7, 40-50.

Tejan, O. A., & Sabil, A. (2019). Understanding employers’ perception of employability skills and career development in Morocco. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 7 (2), 134-138.

Turner, J. J., Amirnuddin, P. S., & Singh, I. H. S. (2019). University legal learning spaces effectiveness in developing employability skills of future law graduates. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 16 (1), 49-79.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (2017). Skills gap assessment in six priority sectors of Nigeria economy. Retrieved from https://www.itf.gov.ng/ftp/Skills_Gap_Assessment.pdf

World Data Atlas. (2018). Nigeria: Unemployment rate. Retrieved from https://knoema.com/atlas/Nigeria/Unemployment-rate.




How to Cite

Okoye, K. R., & Edokpolor, J. E. (2021). Effect of industrial work experience in developing Technical and Vocational Education undergraduates’ employability skills. Asian Journal of Assessment in Teaching and Learning, 11(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.37134/ajatel.vol11.1.1.2021