Review on Anthraquinones Isolated from Rubiaceae Family


  • Nur Afiqah Nadhiah Ammar Rushdan Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery (AuRIns), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nurunajah Ab Ghani Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery (AuRIns), Level 9, FF3 Building, Universiti Teknologi MARA, UiTM Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nurulfazlina Edayah Rasol Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery (AuRIns), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia



Anthraquinone, Rubiaceae, Morinda, Rennellia, Psychotria, Prismatomeris


A current economic trend is to highlight natural resources and many plant species are rich sources of anthraquinones. Anthraquinones are a diverse group of natural compounds extensively studied in various articles. Commonly used for dyes with 30% of it contributed to textile industry. Anthraquinone plays an important chromophore in cancer chemotherapy. They are widely distributed in Rubiaceae family and exhibit various biological activities. Malaysian Rubiaceae, especially plants from Morinda, Rennellia, Psychotria, and Prismatomeris genera, have been known to be rich in anthraquinone content, especially in the roots. The current review aims to provide a comprehensive update on the isolation of anthraquinones from Rubiaceae family in Malaysia. It also discussed the taxonomy, chemistry, and pharmacology studies of the genus. Through the years, 45 anthraquinones have been reported from various species of Rubiaceae demonstrating promising pharmacological activities. The information presented in this review can provide a scientific foundation for future research on the possible therapeutic applications of the species. Enhancing the links between plant biological effects and traditional uses with their chemical characterization.


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Author Biographies

Nur Afiqah Nadhiah Ammar Rushdan, Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery (AuRIns), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Nurunajah Ab Ghani, Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery (AuRIns), Level 9, FF3 Building, Universiti Teknologi MARA, UiTM Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Nurulfazlina Edayah Rasol, Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery (AuRIns), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia


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How to Cite

Ammar Rushdan, N. A. N., Ab Ghani, N., & Rasol, N. E. (2023). Review on Anthraquinones Isolated from Rubiaceae Family. Journal of Science and Mathematics Letters, 11, 163–174.