Plant Dispersal Mode at Different Urbanization Levels in Ipoh City Council, Perak
Keywords:Dispersal mode, ecological services, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Ipoh, urbanization gradient
Urbanization is rapidly expanding, and many forests are being cleared. The loss of crucial ecological functions, including dispersal and pollination, in urban settings can have detrimental effects on individual species and the sustainability of entire ecosystems. Nevertheless, how urbanization affects seed dispersal is still largely unexplored. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the association between plant dispersal mode and urbanization intensity in Ipoh City Council, Perak. The percentage of built-up area within a 1km2 area was measured using ArcGIS software to establish the urbanization gradient. To reflect distinct urbanization, a total of 12 sampling plots, with the sized of 1km2 for each plot were designed. 40 subplots were randomly selected in each plot to create a complete sampling site of 0.1 hectare, and any plants discovered in the subplots were identified at the species level. To characterize the mode of dispersion for each plant species recorded, a few reports from literature have been used as a guideline. Endo-zoochory and hemerochory were more prevalent in urban settings than in other study areas. Significant abundance of zoochory-dependent plants in this study area, it shows urbanization does not always reduce the nature conservation value of places in Ipoh. In the future, policymakers, and town planners could use the findings of this study to help them continuously improve urban development and generate more sustainable urban expansion.
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