Undergraduate students' perceived success factors on learning: An online flipped classroom for designing pervasive games


  • Liu Kai Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Wee Hoe Tan Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Erni Marlina Saari Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris




pervasive game design, influence factors, grounded theory, flipped classroom, preferred learning model


This study aims to identify undergraduate students' perceived success factors in designing a pervasive game using an online flipped classroom approach. Since the context coexisting with the Covid-19 epidemic, online teaching has become the new norm. Implementing the flipped classroom approach to online teaching is quite different from traditional teaching. Furthermore, teaching pervasive game design online with a flipped classroom procedure is undoubtedly a great challenge. After successfully applying the online flipped classroom approach to design pervasive games, a series of one-on-one interviews were conducted with 34 students, in which the data were analyzed using grounded theory. Through the analysis process of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding, six influential factors were found to determine the success of online flipped classrooms for pervasive game design, i.e., professional guidance, a clear mission, autonomic learning, mutual communication, team cooperation, and instrument strategy. These factors influence and link to each other, in which each factor plays a vital role in pre-class, in-class, and after-class learning. These six factors were integrated to form a preferred learning model advocated in this study, which can be referred to by other teaching and learning contexts similar to the flipped classroom for pervasive game design.


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How to Cite

Kai, L., Tan, W. H., & Saari, E. M. (2022). Undergraduate students’ perceived success factors on learning: An online flipped classroom for designing pervasive games. Journal of ICT in Education, 9(2), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.37134/jictie.vol9.2.1.2022

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