Analysis of the psychometric properties of business studies achievement test for senior secondary schools in Nigeria


  • Chidiebere Christopher Ufondu Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
  • Mohammed Adamu Auta Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
  • Chibuzor Christy Ifi Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria



Achievement test, business studies, difficulty index, discriminatory index


The study analyzed the psychometric properties of business studies achievement test for senior secondary schools in Nigeria. One research question guided the study. The study adopted an instrumentation design. The area of the study was Anambra State. The population of the study consists of all 23,077 students and 586 business studies teachers in two hundred and sixty-one senior secondary schools in Anambra State. Taro Yamane formula was used to determine the sample size of the study, which is 630 made up of 393 students in SS1 and 238 business studies teachers in Anambra State. A multi-stage sampling procedure involving two stages was adopted for this study. Proportionate stratified and purposive sampling techniques were employed at the first and second stages respectively. Items were subjected to item analysis to determine the difficulty and discriminatory indices. The study revealed that 125 items were found to be appropriate for inclusion in the business studies achievement test, these test's items met the criteria for item difficulty index and item discrimination. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that teachers of business studies like commerce, accounting, and office practice among others should employ the created business studies Achievement Test. The BSAT items should be used as a model when creating other accomplishment exams for senior secondary schools in business studies.


Download data is not yet available.


Ayunda Friatma, & Azwir Anhar. (2019). Analysis of validity, reliability, discrimination, difficulty and distraction effectiveness in learning assessment. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1387, Article 012063.

Boopathiraj, C., & Chellamani, K. (2013). Analysis of test items on difficulty level and discrimination index in the test for research in education. International Journal of Science and Interdisciplinary Research, 2, 189-193.

de Souza, A. C., Alexandre, N. M. C., & de Brito Guirardello, E. (2017). Psychometric properties in instruments evaluation of reliability and validity. Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde, 26(3), 1-10.

Duktur, L. S., & Barko, L. (2013). Teachers' beliefs in the teaching and examination of business studies in Plateau state secondary schools. Nigerian Journal of Business Education, 1(2), 324-332.

Ebimuna, M. (2021). School plant maintenance and students academic performance in public secondary schools in Bayelsa state. British Journal of Education, Learning and Development Psychology, 4(1), 59-75.

Eleje, L. I., Esomonu N. P. M., Agu, N. N., Okoye, R. O., Obasi, E., & Onah, F. E. (2016). Development and validation of diagnostic economics test for secondary schools. World Journal of Education, 6(3), 90-112.

Emeasoba, N. C., & Victor-Igwe, J. N. (2016). Business studies teachers' perception of effective strategies for teaching business studies in promoting national sustainable development. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 7(3), 217-225.

Fahmi Ishaq El-Uri, & Naser Malas. (2013). Analysis of use of a single best answer format in an undergraduate medical examination. Qatar Medical Journal, 2013(1), 3-6.

Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2013). National policy on education [Policy]. NERDC.

Jayanthi, J. (2014). Development and validation of an achievement test in mathematics. International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention, 2(4), 40-46.

Moyinoluwa, T. D. (2015). Analysing the psychometric properties of mathematics in public examinations in Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(7), 24-30.

Muhammad Aamir Hashmi, Ashi Zeeshan, Muhammad Saleem, & Rafaqat Ali Akbar. (2012). Development and validation of an aptitude test for secondary school mathematics students. Bulletin of Education and Research , 34(1), 65-76.

Obilor, E. I., & Obubere, M. (2020). Development and validation of social studies cognitive achievement test for junior secondary schools in rivers state. International Academic Journal of Educational Research, 5(3), 1-20.

Odukoya, J. A., Adekeye, O., Igbinoba, A. O., & Afolabi, A. (2018). Item analysis of university-wide multiple choice objective examinations: The experience of a Nigerian private university. Qual Quant, 52, 983-997.

Opara, I. M., & Magnus-Arewa, E. A. (2017). Development and validation of mathematics achievement test for primary school pupils. British Journal of Education, 5(7), 47-57.

Owoyele, J. W. (2017, December). Psychometric properties of teacher-made tests: An assessment of primary school teachers’ attitude and competencies [Conference session]. Conference: 7th Global Knowledge Exchange Network, University of Jimma, Ethiopia.

Shafizan Sabri. (2013). Item analysis of student comprehensive test for research in teaching beginner string ensemble using model based teaching among music students in public universities. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(12), 1-14.

Shella Monica. (2021). The challenges in constructing and administering an objective test for beginners’ students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 532, 441-446.




How to Cite

Ufondu, C. C., Auta, M. A., & Ifi, C. C. (2023). Analysis of the psychometric properties of business studies achievement test for senior secondary schools in Nigeria. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education, 13(2), 98–110.