Hubungan budaya organisasi dan organisasi pembelajaran: Perbandingan berdasarkan gender

Relationship organizational culture and learning organization: Comparison based on gender


  • Jamal Nordin Yunus Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris


organisasi pembelajaran, budaya organisasi, MANOVA, gender, biological determinism


Tujuan kajian adalah untuk menentu dan membandingkan hubungan serta varians budaya organisasi dan organisasi pembelajaran berdasarkan gender. Seramai 211 guru dari 12 sekolah cemerlang kategori luar bandar dipilih secara rawak. Analisis ujian korelasi Pearson dan MANOVA sehala digunakan untuk menguji tiga hipotesis nol. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan hubungan antara budaya organisasi dan organisasi pembelajaran adalah sederhana dan siginifikan iaitu r = 0.56, p < 0.05. Manakala Perbandingan secara simultan antara varians budaya organisasi dan organisasi pembelajaran berdasarkan gender menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan, Wilks’ Lambda = 0.99, F (2,208) = 0.67, p > 0.05. Justeru kajian ini boleh mengesahkan bahawa sekolah-sekolah yang cemerlang perlu mempunyai rasa kesamaan dan bertanggungjawab tanpa mengira gender. Kesimpulannya, semua guru dan pentadbir sekolah perlu berkerjasama ke arah sekolah cemerlang tanpa mengira gender. Implikasi kajian ini adalah dapat membantu pihak sekolah mempromosikan budaya organisasi dan organisasi pembelajaran tanpa mengira gender.


Download data is not yet available.


Amabile, T. M. (1997). Motivating creativity in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do. California management review, 40(1), 39-58.

Arfi, W. B., Hikkerova, L., & Sahut, J.-M. (2018). External knowledge sources, green innovation and performance. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 129, 210-220.

Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. (2002). Management: Competing in the new era: Irwin Professional Publishing.

Benjamin, D. (2009). The school as learning organization: validation of the DLOQ with school staff. Alfred University, Alfred, NY,

Bui, H. T. M., & Baruch, Y. (2013). Universities as learning organizations: Internationalization and innovation. In Handbook of Research on the Learning Organization: Adaptation and Context (pp. 227-244): Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.

Chang, S.-C., & Lee, M.-S. (2007). A study on relationship among leadership, organizational culture, the operation of learning organization and employees' job satisfaction. The Learning Organization, 14(2), 155-185.

Che Su, M. (1998). Budaya Organisasi: Kepentingan dalam konteks Pengurusan Kerajaan Tempatan. Paper presented at the Seminar Kebangsaan Kerajaan Tempatan, Bukit Kiara.

Coe, M. A. (1997). Learning organizations and the innovative/effective middle school. (Ed.D.). The Pennsylvania State University, Ann Arbor. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database. (9817454)

Cole, G. A. (2004). Management theory and practice: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Coppieters, P. (2005). Turning schools into learning organizations. European Journal of Teacher Education, 28(2), 129-139.

Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Doering, L., & Thébaud, S. (2017). The effects of gendered occupational roles on men’s and women’s workplace authority: Evidence from microfinance. American Sociological Review, 82(3), 542-567.

Dubisch, J. (2019). Gender and power in rural Greece (Vol. 5307): Princeton University Press.

DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (2009). Professional learning communities at work tm: best practices for enhancing students achievement: Solution Tree Press.

Edmonson, S., Fisher, A., Brown, G., Irby, B., Lunenburg, F., Creighton, T., . . . Christianson, J. (2001). Creating a Collaborative Culture.

Erbacher, D. (2006). Expatriate success in China: Impact of personal and situational factors. American Academy of Business, Cambridge University,

Finnigan, K. S., & Daly, A. J. (2012). Mind the gap: Organizational learning and improvement in an underperforming urban system. American Journal of Education, 119(1), 41-71.

Fiore, D. (2013). Introduction to educational administration: Standards, theories, and practice: Routledge.

Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition (2002). In Social cognition (pp. 171-222): Routledge.

Fortunati, L. (2018). Gender and Feminism. The Bloomsbury Companion to Marx, 549.

Gephart, M. A., Marsick, V. J., Van Buren, M. E., Spiro, M. S., & Senge, P. (1996). Learning organizations come alive. Training & Development, 50(12), 34-46.

Gil, A. J., Rodrigo-Moya, B., & Morcillo-Bellido, J. (2018). The effect of leadership in the development of innovation capacity: A learning organization perspective. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 39(6), 694-711.

Griggs, C. S. (1990). Exploration of a feminist leadership model at university women's centers and women's studies programs: A descriptive study.

Hang Chan, K. (2009). Impact of intellectual capital on organisational performance: An empirical study of companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 1). The Learning Organization, 16(1), 4-21.

Hodgkinson, P. F. M., & Stewart, J. (1998). Towards universities as learning organisations. The Learning Organization.

Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Perspectives, 7(1), 81-94.

Hord, S. M., & Hall, G. (2015). Implementing change-Patterns, principles, and potholes: Pearson Education (us).

Hoy, W., & Miskel, C. (2013). Educational Administration: Theorry, Research And Pratice (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hussein, N., Omar, S., Noordin, F., & Ishak, N. A. (2016a). Learning organization culture, organizational performance and organizational innovativeness in a public institution of higher education in Malaysia: A preliminary study. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37, 512-519.

Hussein, N., Omar, S., Noordin, F., & Ishak, N. A. (2016b). Organizational Innovativeness as Predictors to Organizational Performance of Public Universities in Malaysia. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on University Learning and Teaching (InCULT 2014) Proceedings.

Ioakimidis, M. (2017). Gender and Organizational Culture: A Literature Review of Past Theories. International Review of Management and Business Research, 6(2), 481.

Ismail, M. (2005). Creative climate and learning organization factors: their contribution towards innovation. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(8), 639-654.

Judge, T. A., & Robbins, S. P. (2017). Essentials of organizational behavior: Pearson Education (us).

Jung, D. I., Bass, B. M., & Sosik, J. J. (1995). Bridging leadership and culture: A theoretical consideration of transformational leadership and collectivistic cultures. Journal of Leadership Studies, 2(4), 3-18.

Klein, S. S., Ortman, P. E., Campbell, P., Greenberg, S., Hollingsworth, S., Jacobs, J., . . . Sadker, D. (1994). Continuing the journey toward gender equity. Educational Researcher, 23(8), 13-21.

Kline, P., & Saunders, B. (1993). Ten steps to a learning organization: ERIC.

Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: Observations of groups’ roles shape stereotypes. Journal of personality and social psychology, 107(3), 371.

Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Papers. Peabody Museum of Archaeology & Ethnology, Harvard University.

Lam, Y. L. J. (2002). Defining the Effects of Transformational Leadership on Organisational Learning: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. School Leadership & Management, 22(4), 439-452. doi:10.1080/1363243022000053448

Lewis, J. (2007). Creating New Schools Using Evidence Based Solutions — A Case Study. In T. Townsend (Ed.), International Handbook of School Effectiveness and Improvement (Vol. 17, pp. 903-916). Dordrecht: Springer.

Liou, D. Y., Tu, C. C., & Chang, S. H. (2014). Mediating effect between supportive culture and job satisfaction in administrative services at higher education institutions. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 24(6), 627-640.

Lunenburg, F., & Ornstein, A. (2004). Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices, 4th edn (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning).

McHugh, D., Groves, D., & Alker, A. (1998). Managing learning: what do we learn from a learning organisation? The Learning Organization, 5(5), 209-220.

Mintrop, H., & Trujillo, T. (2007). School Improvement under Test-Driven Accountability: A Comparison of High-and Low-Performing Middle Schools in California. CSE Report 717. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).

Musaazi, J. (1982). The theory and practice of educational administration: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers, Limited.

Mushtaq, N., & Malik, A. B. (2018). The Role of Public and Private Universities of Pakistan as Learning Organization. Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 6(1), 277-290.

Nicholls, A. (2018). Managing educational innovations: Routledge.

O'Reilly III, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of management journal, 34(3), 487-516.

OECD. (2016). What makes a school a learning organization? Aguide for policy makers, school leaders and teachers. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Örtenblad, A. (2018). What does “learning organization” mean? The Learning Organization, 25(3), 150-158. doi:10.1108/tlo-02-2018-0016

Panagiotopoulos, G., Zogopoulos, C., & Karanikola, Z. (2018). The learning organization according to senge: Recording and validation of the park research tool in primary education schools in the prefecture of ilia. Clobal Journal of Human Resource Management, 6(5), 1-19.

Pedler, M., & Bourgoyne, J. (1991). Boydell (1991), The Learning Company: A Strategy of Sustainable Development. Publisher: McGraw-Hill. London.

Pettigrew, A. M. (1979). On Studying Organiza-tional Cultures Andrew M. Pettigrew. Administrative science quarterly, 24(4).

Pokharel, M. P., & Ok Choi, S. (2015). Exploring the relationships between the learning organization and organizational performance. Management research review, 38(2), 126-148.

Porter, L. W., Lawler, E. E., & Hackman, J. R. (1975). Behavior in organizations: McGraw-Hill.

Prelipcean, G., & Bejinaru, R. (2016). Universities as Learning Organizations in the Knowledge Economy. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy Journal, 4(4), 469-492. Retrieved from

Quicke, J. (2000). A new professionalism for a collaborative culture of organizational learning in contemporary society. Educational Management & Administration, 28(3), 299-315.

Ridgeway, C. L., & Correll, S. J. (2004). Unpacking the gender system: A theoretical perspective on gender beliefs and social relations. Gender & society, 18(4), 510-531.

Sadker, M., & Sadker, D. (1994). Failing at fairness: How America’s schools cheat females. New York, NY: Scribner.

Sayed, S. S. S. A., & Edgar, D. (2019). The role of leadership competencies in supporting the Al Nahda University for becoming a learning organization: a new qualitative framework of the DLOQ. International Journal of Business Administration, 10(2).

Schechter, C. (2008). Organizational learning mechanisms: The meaning, measure, and implications for school improvement. Educational administration quarterly, 44(2), 155-186.

Schechter, C., & Atarchi, L. (2014). The meaning and measure of organizational learning mechanisms in secondary schools. Educational administration quarterly, 50(4), 577-609.

Seashore Louis, K., & Lee, M. (2016). Teachers’ capacity for organizational learning: The effects of school culture and context. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 27(4), 534-556.

Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization: Broadway Business.

Senge, P. M., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., & Dutton, J. (2012). Schools that learn (updated and revised): A fifth discipline fieldbook for educators, parents, and everyone who cares about education: Crown Business.

Sternberg, R. J. (2015). A Model of Institutional Creative Change for Assessing Universities as Learning Organizations. Creativity Research Journal, 27(3), 254-261. doi:10.1080/10400419.2015.1063874

Stouten, J., Rousseau, D. M., & De Cremer, D. (2018). Successful organizational change: Integrating the management practice and scholarly literatures. Academy of Management Annals, 12(2), 752-788.

Sufean, H. (2014). School culture and instructional leadership of high-performing and low performing school: Patterns of variation and relationship. Jurnal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 19(3), 138-144.

Triandis, H. C. (2001). Individualism-collectivism and personality. J Pers, 69(6), 907-924. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.696169

Vanhoof, J., Van Petegem, P., & De Maeyer, S. (2009). Attitudes towards school self-evaluation. Studies in educational evaluation, 35(1), 21-28.

Wallach, E. J. (1983). Individuals and organizations: The cultural match. Training & Development Journal, 37(2), 29-36.

Yi, X., & Uen, J. F. (2006). Relationship between organizational socialization and organization identification of professionals: Moderating effects of personal work experience and growth need strength. The journal of American Academy of Business, 10(1), 362-371.

Zhu, C., & Engels, N. (2014). Organizational culture and instructional innovations in higher education: Perceptions and reactions of teachers and students. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 42(1), 136-158.




How to Cite

Yunus, J. N. (2020). Hubungan budaya organisasi dan organisasi pembelajaran: Perbandingan berdasarkan gender: Relationship organizational culture and learning organization: Comparison based on gender. Management Research Journal, 9(1), 17–27. Retrieved from