Assessment on Bird Conservation Status Found in Rubber Forest Plantation by Using IUCN and Regional Classification
Keywords:Rubber forest plantation, birds, off-reserve strategy, IUCN, Malaysian Wildlife Conservation Act (WCA)
A wealth of studies have proposed that plantations can be enhanced into an area that is rich in biodiversity, perhaps to the extent of being an off-reserve strategy area for conservation purposes. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of rubber forest plantation in harbouring and acting as an off-reserve conservation area for birds. By conserving forest fragment areas as a way to improve the heterogeneity of a landscape within a rubber forest plantation, this paper aims to determine the conservation status of birds recorded from Bukit Kuantan rubber forest plantation which adopted forest fragment conservation. A point count observation method was implemented to record any sightings of birds within this plantation landscape. Subsequently, the identified bird species were checked with the Malaysian Wildlife Conservation Act (WCA) 2010 and IUCN Red List Data of endangered species. From the context of WCA 2010, it was found that majority of birds which accounted to 70%, were classified as totally protected, 11% were classified as protected, while remaining 19% were classified as non-protected. This work also highlights observation notes on four near-threatened bird species according to IUCN Red List Data recorded at Bukit Kuantan rubber forest plantation. Through the finding, it can be postulated that the rubber forest plantation might be suitable as an off-reserve conservation area although continuous studies is deemed necessary to determine the resiliency of the birds to continue their existence particularly in this rubber forest plantation.
Aratrakorn, S., Thunhikorn, S. & Donald, P. F. (2006). Changes in bird communities following conversion of lowland forest to oil palm and rubber plantations in southern Thailand. Bird Conservation International, 16(1), 71-82.
Azhar, B., Sapari, M., Zulkifly, S., Suhailan, W. M. & Sajap, A. S. (2013). Protecting biodiversity outside natural forests: environmental-friendly oil palm plantations as an off reserve strategy in Peninsular Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agriculture Science, 36(S), 231-246.
Aziz, S. A., Laurance, W. F. & Clements, R. (2010). Forests reserved for rubber. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8, 178.
Bakewell, D., Azmi, R., Yew, F. K., Ng, F. Y., Basiron, Y. & Sundram, K. (eds). 2012. Biodiversity in Plantation Landscapes. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Wild Asia and The Malaysian Palm Oil Council.
Behm, J. E., Yang, X. & Chen, J. (2013). Slipping through the cracks: rubber plantation is unsuitable breeding habitat for frogs in Xishuangbanna, China. Plos One, 8(9), 1-13.
Bing, D. Y., Muhammad Nawaz, R. & Mohamed, Z. (2013). Avian richness and habitat characteristics in primary and logged hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest of peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal, 65(4), 300-316.
Birdlife International. (2016). Psilopogon rafflesii. Retrieved February 7, 2017, from
Blakewell, D. (2012). Checklist of the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia. Retrieved May 1, 2016, from
Cotter, M., Martin, K. & Sauerborn, J. (2009). How do “renewable products” impact biodiversity and ecosystem services – the example of natural rubber in China. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 110(1), 9-22.
Datta, A. (1998). Hornbill abundance in unlogged forest, selectively logged forest and a forest plantation in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Oryx, 32(4), 285-294.
Davison, G. W. H. & Aik, Y. C. (2010). A naturalist's guide to the birds of Malaysia and Singapore: including Sabah & Sarawak naturalist guide. Oxford, United Kingdom: John Beaufoy Publishing.
Davison, G. W. H. & Fook, C. Y. (2003). A photographic guide to birds of peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. London, United Kingdom: New Holland.
Enters, T., Durst, P. B. & Brown, C. (2003). What does it take? The role of incentives in forest plantation development in the Asia Pacific region. Paper to UNFF Intersessional Experts Meeting on the Role of Planted Forests in Sustainable Forest Management, 24-30 March. Wellington, New Zealand.
Fitzherbert, E. B., Struebig, M. J., Morel, A., Danielsen, F., Bruhl, C. A., Donald, P. F., et al. (2008). How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23(10), 538-545.
Harich, F. K. & Treydte, A. C. (2016). Mammalian wildlife diversity in rubber and oil palm plantations. CAB reviews, 11(20), 1-11.
Li, S., Zou, F., Zhang, Q. & Sheldon, F. H. (2013). Species richness and guild composition in rubber plantations compared to secondary forest on Hainan Island, China. Agroforestry Systems, 87(5), 1117-1128.
Lindenmayer, D. B., Hobbs, R. J. & Salt, D. (2003). Plantation forests and biodiversity conservation. Australian Forestry, 66, 62-66.
Lok, E. F. S. L., Yao, C. J. & Tey, B. S. (2009). Barbets of Singapore part 3: forest species, with emphasis on Megalaima rafflesii lesson, the Red-crowned Barbet. Nature in Singapore, 2, 69-76.
Mohd-Azlan, J. (2014). Wildlife conservation legislations in Malaysia: evolution and future needs. In J. MohdAzlan, A. A. Tuen & J. Grinang (Eds.), RIMBA - 3 Sustaning livelihood through prudent utilization and management of natural resources (pp. 13-22). Sarawak, Malaysia: Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.
Mohd-Azlan, J. & Lawes, M. J. (2011). The efficacy of protected areas and future challenges for wildlife conservation in Sarawak. In M. Mokhtar & S. A. Halim (Eds.), RIMBA 2: Regional sustainable development in Malaysia and Australia (pp. 136-146). Bangi, Malaysia: LESTARI Publisher.
Najera, A. & Simonetti, J. A. (2009). Enhancing avifauna in commercial plantations. Conservation Biology, 24(1), 319-324.
Najera, A. & Simonetti, J. A. (2010). Can oil palm plantations become bird friendly?. Agroforestry Systems, 80, 203-209.
Hashim, E. N. & Ramli, R. (2013). Comparative study of understory birds diversity inhabiting lowland rainforest, virgin jungle reserve and regenerated forest. Scientific World Journal 1-8.
Norton, D. A. (1998). Indigenous biodiversity conservation and plantation forestry: options for the future. New
Zealand Forestry, 43(2), 34-39.
Peh, K. S. H., De Jong, J., Sodhi, N. S., Lim, S. L. H. & Yap, C. A. M. (2005). Lowland rainforest avifauna and human disturbance: persistence of primary forest birds in selectively logged forests and mixed mixedrural habitats of southern Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation, 123, 489-505.
Peh, K. S. H., Sodhi, N. S., De Jong, J., Sekercioglu, C. H., Yap, C. A. M. & Lim, S. L. H. (2006). Conservation value of degraded habitats for forest birds in southern peninsular Malaysia. Diversity and Distributions, 12(5), 572-581.
Ralph, C. J., Droege, S. & Sauer, J. R. (1995). Managing and monitoring birds using point counts: standards and applications. In C. J. Ralph, J. R. Sauer & S. Droege (Eds.), Monitoring bird populations by point counts (pp. 61-168). Albany, CA: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station.
Ramli, R., Ya’Cob, Z. & Hashim, R. (2009). Diversity of birds in Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science, 28(4), 465-480.
Sekercioglu, C. H. (2012). Bird functional diversity and ecosystem services in tropical forests, agroforests and
agricultural areas. Journal of Ornithology, 153, 153-161.
Shackelford, G. E., Steward, P. R., German, R. N., Sait, S. M. & Benton, T. G. (2015). Conservation planning in agricultural landscapes: hotspots of conflict between agriculture and nature. Diversity and Distributions, 21(3), 357-367.
Sheldon, F. H., Styring, A. & Hosner, P. A. (2010). Bird species richness in a Bornean exotic tree plantation: a long-term perspective. Biological Conservation, 143(2), 399-407.
Sreekar, R., Huang, G., Yasuda, M., Quan, R. C., Goodale, E., Corlett, R. T., et al. (2016). Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations. Scientific Reports, 6, 21822.
Teuscher, M., Vorlaufer, M., Wollni, M., Brose, U., Mulyani, Y. & Clough, Y. (2015). Trade-offs between bird diversity and abundance, yields and revenue in smallholder oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia. Biological Conservation, 186, 306-318.
Warren, T. E., Dolman, P. M. & Edwards, D. P. (2015). Increasing demand for natural rubber necessitates a robust sustainability initiative to mitigate impacts on tropical biodiversity. Conservation Letters, 8(4), 230-241.
Zakaria, M. & Rajpar, M. N. (2010). Bird species composition and feeding guilds based on point count and mist netting methods at the Paya Indah wetland reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 21(2), 95-104.