Kerangka teknologi bantu untuk diagnosis hubungan kecerdasan visual spasial bagi pelajar dengan masalah pembelajaran

Assistive technology framework to diagnosis the relationship of spatial visual intelligence for students with learning disabilities


  • Intan Shazila Samsudin Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
  • Muhamad Hariz Muhamad Adnan Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris



teknologi bantu, hubungan kecerdasan visual spasial, masalah pembelajaran


Hubungan Kecerdasan Visual Spasial (VSR) merupakan keupayaan untuk mengenalpasti orientasi dan kedudukan objek dan menghubungkait orientasi diri dengan persekitaran. VSR menyumbang kepada kesedaran mendalam terhadap penterjemahan persepsi dan pembangunan kognitif dalam membantu individu untuk bergerak secara efisyen dalam persekitarannya. Masalah visual seringkali dikaitkan dengan Masalah Pembelajaran (LD) terutama untuk Disleksia dan Autisme. Mereka seringkali menghadapi masalah dalam mengecam, mengingat, mengorganisasi dan menginterpretasi visual yang mengakibatkan mereka mudah keliru dalam situasi penggunaan tulisan atau simbol pictorial dalam pembelajaran. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mencadangkan kerangka berkaitan teknologi bantu untuk diagnosis VSR di kalangan pelajar LD. Kajian perpustakaan dilakukan bagi melihat faktor dan elemen yang bersesuaian untuk menghasilkan teknologi bantu bagi diagnosis VSR dikalangan pelajar LD. Kerangka yang dicadangkan ini dapat menyumbang kepada usaha untuk menambahbaik dan mempelbagaikan kaedah mendiagnosis VSR terutamanya dikalangan pelajar LD. Ia juga membantu tenaga pengajar pendidikan khas untuk merancang, membangun dan mengimplemantasi kaedah intervensi serta kaedah pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang bersesuaian dengan tahap keupayaan pelajar LD khususnya berkaitan VSR.



Visual Spatial Relationship (VSR) is the ability to identify the orientation and position of objects and relate self-orientation to the environment. VSR contributes to a deep awareness of perceptual translation and cognitive development in helping individuals to move efficiently in their environment. Visual problems are often associated with Learning Disabilities (LD) especially Dyslexia and Autism. They often face problems in recognizing, remembering, organizing and interpreting visuals that result in them being easily confused in situations of the use of writing or pictorial symbols in learning. The objective of this study was to propose an assistive technology-related framework for the diagnosis of VSR among LD students. A library study was conducted to see the appropriate factors and elements to produce assistive technology for the diagnosis of VSR among LD students. This proposed framework can contribute to improving and diversifying methods of diagnosing VSR, especially among LD students. It also helps special education educators to plan, develop and implement intervention methods, as well as teaching and learning methods that are appropriate to LD students’ ability level, especially related to VSR.


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How to Cite

Samsudin, I. S., & Adnan, M. H. M. (2021). Kerangka teknologi bantu untuk diagnosis hubungan kecerdasan visual spasial bagi pelajar dengan masalah pembelajaran: Assistive technology framework to diagnosis the relationship of spatial visual intelligence for students with learning disabilities. Journal of ICT in Education, 8(4), 113–121.

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