Effect of Scratch Programming Language (SPL) on Achievement in Geometry among Senior Secondary Students in Ibadan, Nigeria
Keywords:gender differences, Scratch Programming Language, students' achievement in Geometry, Senior School Mathematics
The knowledge of Mathematics is germane to the scientific and technological development of nations all over the world. In addition to this, the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) cum advances in pedagogy have made educators all over the world adopt innovative approaches that are ICT-inclined to enhance students’ acquisition of mathematical skills and also to enhance their academic achievement. In view of this, this study determined the effect of scratch programming language (SPL) on achievement in Geometry among senior secondary one (SS 1) students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted the pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental research design. The participants were 116 (75 males and 41 females) Senior Secondary School students in two intact classes from two public schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area. The instruments used for data collection were the Students Achievement Test in Geometry (SATG) (with a reliability coefficient of 0.75) and the Instructional Guide or Manual for the use of Scratch Programming Language (TGUSPL). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Results revealed that there was a significant main effect of treatment on students’ achievement in Geometry (F(1, 111) = 124.80; p<0.05, partial η2 = 0.53). Gender also had a significant main effect on students’ achievement in Geometry (F(1, 111) = 20.25; p<0.05, partial η2 = 0.15). It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and curriculum developers should adopt the use of Scratch programming language (SPL) for teaching Geometry for improved achievement in this aspect of Mathematics.
Abbas, M. G. (2014). Effect of gender-related differences in academic achievement and retention of senior secondary school students taught Geometry using problem solving approach. The Eurasia proceedings of educational and social sciences, 1:284-488.
Adegoke, A. B. (2003). Teacher Influence as a determinant of dependent-prone students’ learning outcomes in S.S.S. Geometry in Ibadan, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan.
Ajai, T. J., Imoko, B. I. & Okwu, E. I. (2013). Comparison of the learning effectiveness of problem-based learning and conventional method of teaching algebra. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(1), 1-3.
Akinsola, M. K. & Ogunleye, B. O. (2004). Statistical designs and research methods in education. Unpublished Mimeograph, Department of Teacher Education, University of Ibadan. Ibadan, Nigeria.
Akinyemi, A. L. (2013). Development and utilization of an instructional programme for impacting competence in language of graphic orientation (LOGO) at primary school level in Ibadan, Nigeria University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Unpublished P.hD. Thesis.
Alamu, S. A. (2011). The State of Science and Technology Infrastructure in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research.
Anaduaka, U. S. & Okafor, C. F. (2013). Poor performance of Nigerian students in Mathematics in senior secondary certificate examination (SSCE) what is not working? Jordan Journal, 11(2), 1-3.
Arnseth, H. C., Hatlevik, K., Kløvstad, V., Kristiansen, T. & Ottestad, G. (2007). ITU Monitor. Skolens digitale tilstand. Oslo: Forsknings- og kompetansenettverk for IT i utdanning, ITU.
Boyer, J. T. (2010). Using scratch for learner-constructed multimedia: A design-based research inquiry of constructionism in practice. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate School. University of Florida, United States.
Colon, O. & Romo, M. (2016). Teaching with Scratch in compulsory secondary education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 11(2), 67-69.
Danjuma, B. (2015). Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on academic achievement among NCE Physics students of different abilities in Niger State, Nigeria. A thesis submitted to School of Postgraduate Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Erdogan, A., Baloglu, M. & Kesici, S. (2011). Gender differences in Geometry and Mathematics Achievement and self–efficacy beliefs in Geometry. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 43, 91-96.
Esan, F. (2015). Cooperative problem-solving strategy and students’ learning outcome in algebraic word problems: A Nigerian case. International Journal for Infonomics (IJI), 8(1), 986-988.
Etukudo, U. E. (2002). The effect of computer-assisted instruction on gender and performance of junior secondary school students in Mathematics. ABACUS, Journal of Mathematical Association Nigeria, 27(1), 1-8.
Eze, J. E. (2007). Incorporating an aesthetic image to Mathematics Classroom Activities. Proceeding of the Mathematical Association of Nigeria (M.A.N): Annual National Conference. September 25-29.
Foerster, K. (2016). Integrating programming into the Mathematics curriculum: combining scratch and Geometry in grade 6 and 7. Retrieved from System.out.printIn.
Forster, C., Forester, T. & Lowe, T. (2018). Teaching programming skills in primary school Mathematics classes: An evaluation using game programming. http://scratch.mit.edu.
Guven, B., & Kosa, T. (2008). The effect of dynamic Geometry software on student Mathematics teachers’ spatial visualization skills. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(4), 100-107.
Halat, E. (2006). Sex-related differences in the acquisition of the van Hiele levels and motivation in learning Geometry. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 173-178.
Hamish, B. T. (2017). The effect of practical approach of Teaching Geometry on attitude and performance of junior secondary school students in Katsina state Nigeria. Unpublished Master Dissertation, Department of Science Education. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Hartley, B. L., & Sutton, R. M. (2013). A stereotype threat account of boys’ academic underachievement. Child Development, 84(5), 1716-1733.
Ifamuiwa, A. S. (2003). Girls’ participation and performance in senior secondary Further Mathematics in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun state Nigeria. In Baiyelo, T. D and Busari, O. O. (Eds.) Standards for Science, Technology & Mathematics Educational Research (A book of readings). Lagos: Victory printers Nig. Ltd, 97-100.
Ikwuka, O. & Usifoh, A. C. (2016). Effect of improvised instructional materials on senior secondary students’ academic achievement in Mathematics in Oshimili south local government area. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 3(2), 69-77.
Jacob, T. A., Decl, C. B., Kajuru, Y. K., Musa, M. & Bala, K. (2017). Effect of concrete manipulative approach on attitude, retention and performance in Geometry among junior secondary school students in Benue State, Nigeria, IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education. 7(6), 80-85
Kalelioglu, F., & Guibahar, Y. (2014). The effects of teaching programming via scratch on problem solving skills: A discussion from learners’ perspective. Journal of Informatics in Education 13(1), 34-35.
Korkmaz, O. (2016). The Effects of scratch-based game activities on students’ attitudes, self-efficacy and academic achievement. International Journal Modern Education and Computer Science, 1, 16-23.
Kurumeh M. S. (2007). Effect of ethno Mathematics approach on students' interest in Geometry and mensuration, ABACUS: J. Math. Assoc. Nig. 32(1), 103-114.
Maloney, J., Resnick, M., Rusk, N., Silverman, B. & Eastmond, E. (2010). The Scratch programming language and environment. ACM Trans. Comput. Educ., 10(4), 15-25.
Mamali, N. R. (2015). Enhancement of learners' performance in Geometry at secondary schools in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo province. Published Master of education in curriculum studies submitted to School of Education. University of Venda.
Muhammed, K. T. (2017). The effectiveness of using scratch applications in developing sixth graders’ English vocabulary, its retention, and self–efficacy. IUG Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences of Islamic University of Gaza. 27(6), 2-10.
Odili, G. O. (2012). Towards a New Paradigm of Teaching Mathematics in Nigerian Universities: The Role of Mathematics Educators. Online Journal of Science Teachers Association of Nigerian (STAN), 47(1).
Ogan, G. C. & George, N. R. (2014). Investigating difficult concepts in senior secondary school Mathematics curriculum as perceived by students. International Journal of Academic research and reflection. 3(6), 72-73.
Ogunleye, B. O. (2007). Teachers’ perceived barriers to successful implementation of ICT in the teaching and learning of science subjects in Nigerian secondary schools. Nigeria Journal of Computer Literacy, 8(1), 15-31.
Ogunleye, B. O. (2009). Students’ background in science, mathematical ability and practical skills as determinants of performance in senior secondary school chemistry. African Journal of Educational Management, 12(2), 215-226.
Ogunleye, B. O. (2013). Impact of a content-process training programme on pre-service teachers’ knowledge of science process skills and reflective classroom practice. Journal of Early Childhood and Primary Education, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria, 2, 28-38.
Ogunleye, B. O. (2014). Designing science lessons along expository, free-discovery and guided-inquiry methodologies: requirements of effective teacher professional development. Journal of Early Childhood and Primary Education, Kwara State University. 3, 45-54.
Ojo, O. J. (2003). Relative effects of self-regulatory and cooperative learning strategies on learning outcomes in senior secondary school Mathematics, Ibadan-North, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Ibadan.
Okeke, E. A. C. (2001). Women is STM education in Nigeria. Key Note Address at the 42nd STAN Annual Conference. Ilorin.
Olowojaiye, F. B. (2004). Effects of Behavioural objective-based and study question-based instructional strategies on students’ learning outcomes in senior secondary Mathematics in Lagos State. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, University of Ibadan.
Otrel-Cass, K., Forret, M. & Taylor, M. (2009). Opportunities and challenges in technology rich classrooms: Using the Scratch software. SET: Research Information for Teachers. 1, 49–54.
Park, P., & Shin, S. (2014). A research on the effect affecting problem solving ability of primary students through the Scratch programming. Advanced Science and Technology, 59, 117-120.
Prendergast, M., & Donoghue, J. (2014). Unravelling the myth of effective teaching in Mathematics, Irish Journal of Academic Practice, 3(1), 1-5.
Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy, H. A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., Millner, A., Rosenbaum, E., Siver, J., Silverman, B. & Kafay, Y. (2009). Scratch: programming for all. Communication of the ACM, 52(1), 60-67.
Sunzuma G., Masocha M. & Zezekwa N. (2013). Secondary School Students’ Attitudes towards their Learning of Geometry: A Survey of Bindura Urban Secondary Schools. Greener Journal of Educational Research. 3(8), 402-406.
Surya, E., & Syahputra, E. (2017). Improving high-level thinking skills by development of learning PBL approach on the learning mathematics for senior high school students. International Education Studies. 10(8), 12-20.
Weintrop, D. & Wilensky, U. (2017). Comparing block-based and text-based programming in high school computer science classrooms. ACM Transaction on Computing Education. 18(1), 1-10.
Yang, J. C., & Chen, S. Y. (2010). Effects of gender differences and spatial abilities within a digital pentominoes game. Computers in Education. 55(3), 1220-1222.