Investigation on promotional criteria based on human resource practices for better organizational effectiveness


  • Wong Kok Yaw School of Business Management, Quest International University Perak, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia



Criteria, Competency, Effectiveness, Promotion, Seniority


Promotional decision is one of the important human resource practices that has been seen as a challenge for many organizations. Strong human capital is the successful factor for the development of an organization which can help the company to gain competitive advantage. Promotion criteria which based on seniority, competency, leadership and job attitude are going to discuss in this paper to test their relationship with company performance. 100 human resource executives from different companies will answer the self-directed questionnaire for data collection. Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regressions will be used to analyse the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable. Results showed that all independent variables are positively related to dependent variable where competency is resulted in highest relationship. Managerial implications are provided to guide managers on the effective promotion criteria for better organizational effectiveness.


Download data is not yet available.


Archer, J. (2014). Work attitudes & motivation in the workplace. Retrieved from 65 .html

Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S.A. (2013). Management: Leading & collaborating in a competitive world (10th ed.). New York:McGraw-Hill.

Babbie, E. (2013). The basics of social research. Cengage Learning.

Boachie-Mensah, F., & Dogbe, O.H. (2011). Performance based pay as a motivational tool for achieving
organizational performance: An Exploratory case study. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(12),1-17.

Billikopf, G. (2007). Promotions, transfers & layoffs. Retrieved from 7labor/04.htm

Birasnav, M. (2014). Knowledge management and organizational performance in service industry: The role of
transformational leadership beyond the effects of transactional leadership. Journal of Business Research, 1(3), 1-

Brown, C. (2014). The impact of merit pay on job performance. Retrieved from

Casati, A., & Genet, C. (2014). Principle investigators as scientific entrepreneurs. Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(1),11-32.

Coff, R., & Kryscynski, D. (2011). Invited editorial: Drilling for micro-foundations of human capital based
competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 37(5), 1429-1443.

Cohen, P.N., & Huffman, M.L. (2007). Working for the women, female managers and the gender wage gap. Journal of American Sociological Review, 72(5), 681-704.

Collert, A., Kristof-Brown, A., Bradley, B., & Barrick, M. (2008). CEO transformational leadership: The role of goal
importance congruence in top management teams. Journal of Academy of Management, 51, 81-96.

David, F.R. (2013). Strategic Management. Concept and cases (14th ed.). United States: Pearson Education Limited.

Gomez, C. (2014). What are the benefits of merit based pay. Retrieved from

Emmanuel, O.N.B., Wujung, V.A., & Emmanuel, S.M.P. (2014). Mechanisms of the influence of human capital on
economic growth: A panel data analysis of the Cemac region. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 4(5), 625-

Hair, J.F., Money, A.H., Samouel, P., Page, M. (2007). Research methods for business. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Heathfield, S.M. (2014). What seniority means to work. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from htm

Kehoe, R.R., & Wright, P.M. (2013). The impact of high performance human resource practices on employees’
attitudes and behavior. Journal of Management, 39(2), 366-391.

Kinicki, A., & Williams, B. (2011). Management: A practical introduction (5th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill

Lay, M.L., Gao, S.H., & Tan, S.P. (2014). The analysis on the cultural creativities, itinerary and field shaping of the
indigenous people in Taiwan: Taking the Laij Tribe and the Tjimur Tribe for example. International Journal of
Social Science and Humanity, 4(3), 170-177.

Lodico, M.G., Spaulding, D.T., & Voegtle, K.H. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice. United States: John Wiley and Sons.

Marquis, A. (2014). Pros & cons of a seniority based system of promotion and transfer. Retrieved from

Parise, S. (2007). Knowledge management and human resource development: An application in social network
methods. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(3), 359-383.

Paulhus, D.P. (1991). Measurement and control of response bias. In Robinson, J.P., Shaver, P.R., & Wrightsman, L.S. (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp. 17-59). San Diego: Academic Press.

Perry, J.L., Engbers, T.A., & Jun, S.Y. (2009). Back to the future. Performance related pay, empirical research and the perils of resistance. Public Administration Review, 69(1), 33-51.

Rawes, E. M. (2014). What is the seniority system and how was it declined in important? Retrieved from

Reeves, L. (2014). How do negative & positive attitudes affect the workplace. Retrieved February 14, 2014, from

Rowden, P., Matthews, G., Watson, B., & Biggs, H. (2011). The relative impact of work-related stress, life stress and driving environment stress on driving outcomes. Journal of Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(4), 1332-1340.

Russo, M., Guo, L., & Baruch, Y. (2014). Work attitudes, career success and health: Evidence from China. Journal of
Vocational Behavior, 84(3), 248-258.

Samii, M. (2011). Changing structure of Japanese management and corporate governance. International Journal of Governance, 1(2), 13-18.

Stavrou, E., & Ierodiakonou, C. (2013). Flexibility for women returners in Cyprus: A competency based approach.
International Journal of Gender in Management, 28(1), 6-27.

Tangthong, S., Trimetsoontorn, J., & Rojniruntikul, N. (2014). The effect of HRM practices on employee attrition in
Thailand Manufacturing. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 4(6), 498-503.

Tatlah, I.A., & Zafar, I.M. (2011). Role of human capital and education in economic growth. International Journal of Academic Research, 32(2), 629-631.

United Nations Development Programme. (2011). Malaysia achieving the millennium development goals: Successes and challenges. Kuala Lumpur: United Nations Country Team.

Wang, S., & Noe, R.A. (2010). Knowledge sharing: A review and directions for future research. Human Resource
Management Review, 20, 115-131.

Wu, W.L., Hsu, B.F., & Yeh, R.S. (2007). Fostering the determinants of knowledge transfer: A team level analysis.
Journal of Information Science, 33(3), 326-339.

Xavier, B. (2014). Shaping the future research agenda for compensation and benefits management: Some thoughts based on a stakeholder inquiry. Human Resource Management Review, 24, 31-40.

Yucei, I., McMillan, A., & Richard, O.C. (2013). Does CEO transformational leadership influence top executive
normative commitment? Journal of Business Research, 1-8.

Zikmund, W.G., Babin, B.J., Carr, J.C., & Griffin, M. (2010). Business research the methods (8th ed.). New York: South-Western/Cengage Learning.




How to Cite

Kok Yaw, W. (2017). Investigation on promotional criteria based on human resource practices for better organizational effectiveness. Journal of Contemporary Issues and Thought, 7, 68–78.