The Effect of TQM and Leadership on Organizational Performance of Dubai Police: The Mediating Role of Organizational Culture


  • Muneer Dahif Allah Saeed Eshaq Faculty of Management and Economics, Sultan Idris Education University, MALAYSIA
  • Zuraidah Zainol Faculty of Management and Economics, Sultan Idris Education University, MALAYSIA



Organizational culture, organizational performance, leadership, TQM, Dubai Police


The organization needs to evaluate the organizational performance on regular basis. Therefore, the main objective of the present study is to assess the relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM), leadership, organizational culture and organizational performance. Additionally, the mediating role of organizational culture is examined in this study. This study is quantitative in nature. Therefore, this research employs a cross-sectional design. The respondents of this study consist of Police employees working in Dubai. Furthermore, simple random sampling is adopted in the present study. 64.72% of the questionnaire distribution is received back from the respondents and used for analysis. This data is assessed through Smart PLS 3.3.2. The findings of the study reveal that all of the proposed hypotheses of the study are supported and the mediating role of organizational culture is also confirmed. Organizational culture has a significant positive effect on organizational performance. Moreover, the findings of this study are helpful for policymakers and academicians as the result implies that the adoption of TQM may improve performance and create a competitive advantage, thereby enhancing its contribution to economic development.


Download data is not yet available.


Addin, N. A. H. T. (2020). The relationship between the leadership and organizational performance a review. International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology, 7(11), 120-128.

Aletaiby, A., Kulatunga, U., & Pathirage, C. (2017). Key success factors of total quality management and employees performance in Iraqi oil industry. Paper presented at the 13th IPGRC 2017 Full Conference Proceedings.

Anindya, A. K. A., & Jati, E. P. (2020). The effect of transformational leadership, work motivation, and job satisfaction on employees’performance. Terbuka Journal of Economics and Business, 1(1), 49-61.

Arshad, K. N. M., Halipah, A. H., & Omar, R. C. (2018). The effect of organizational culture towards total quality management (TQM) implementation in Malaysia public organization. International Academic Journal of Accounting and Financial Management, 5(2), 1-11.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Conţu, E. G. (2020). Organizational performance–theoretical and practical approaches; study on students’ perceptions. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence.

Daniëls, E., Hondeghem, A., & Dochy, F. (2019). A review on leadership and leadership development in educational settings. Educational Research Review, 27, 110-125.

De Luque, M. S., Washburn, N. T., Waldman, D. A., & House, R. J. (2008). Unrequited profit: How stakeholder and economic values relate to subordinates' perceptions of leadership and firm performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(4), 626-654.

Demir, İ. B., Uğurluoğlu, Ö., & Ürek, D. (2017). The relationship between leadership and organization culture: A literature review. Journal of Strategic Research in Social Science, 3(2), 175-196.

Dijkstra, T. K., & Henseler, J. (2015). Consistent and asymptotically normal PLS estimators for linear structural equations. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 81, 10-23.

Ferris, G. R., Witt, L. A., & Hochwarter, W. A. (2001). Interaction of social skill and general mental ability on job performance and salary. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1075.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal Of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Goodman, P. S., & Darr, E. D. (1998). Computer-aided systems and communities: Mechanisms for organizational learning in distributed environments. MIS Quarterly, 22(4), 417-440.

Green, K. W., Inman, R. A., Sower, V. E., & Zelbst, P. J. (2019). Impact of JIT, TQM and green supply chain practices on environmental sustainability. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 30(1), 26-47.

Hair Jr, J. F., Matthews, L. M., Matthews, R. L., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: updated guidelines on which method to use. International Journal of Multivariate Data Analysis, 1(2), 107-123.

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Matthews, L. M., & Ringle, C. M. (2016). Identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity with FIMIX-PLS: part I–method. European Business Review, 28(1), 63-76.

Hao, M. J., & Yazdanifard, R. (2015). How effective leadership can facilitate change in organizations through improvement and innovation. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 15(9), 1-5.

Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(1), 2-20.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.

Hilman, H., Ali, G. A., & Gorondutse, A. H. (2019). The relationship between TQM and SMEs’ performance: The mediating role of organizational culture. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 69(1), 61-84.

Joseph, O. O., & Kibera, F. (2019). Organizational culture and performance: Evidence from microfinance institutions in Kenya. SAGE Open, 9(1), 2158244019835934.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, 5th edition. New York: The Guilford Press.

Kim, T., & Chang, J. (2019). Organizational culture and performance: a macro-level longitudinal study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 40(1), 65–84.

Koohang, A., Paliszkiewicz, J., & Goluchowski, J. (2017). The impact of leadership on trust, knowledge management, and organizational performance: A research model. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 117(3), 521-537.

Kostova, T., & Roth, K. (2002). Adoption of an organizational practice by subsidiaries of multinational corporations: Institutional and relational effects. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 215-233.

Li, W., Bhutto, T. A., Nasiri, A. R., Shaikh, H. A., & Samo, F. A. (2018). Organizational innovation: The role of leadership and organizational culture. International Journal of Public Leadership, 14(1), 33-47.

Lord, R. G., Day, D. V., Zaccaro, S. J., Avolio, B. J., & Eagly, A. H. (2017). Leadership in applied psychology: Three waves of theory and research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 434.

Marampa, A. M., Khananda, R. W. V., & Anggraeni, A. I. (2021). The effect of organizational culture on organizational performance. International Conference on Rural Development and Entrepreneurship (ICORE), 5(1), 535-542.

Matkó, A., & Takács, T. (2017). Examination of the relationship between organizational culture and performance. International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering, 8(1), 99-105.

Ortega‐Parra, A., & Sastre‐Castillo, M. Á. (2013). Impact of perceived corporate culture on organizational commitment. Management Decision. 51(5), 1071–1083.

Paais, M., & Pattiruhu, J. R. (2020). Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(8), 577-588.

Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to using SPSS for windows (version 12). New South Wales, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Pambreni, Y., Khatibi, A., Azam, S., & Tham, J. (2019). The influence of total quality management toward organization performance. Management Science Letters, 9(9), 1397-1406.

Pathiranage, J. (2019). Organizational culture and business performance: An empirical study. International Journal of Economics and Management, 24(2), 264-278.

Pathiranage, Y. L., Jayatilake, L. V., & Abeysekera, R. (2020). Case study research design for exploration of organizational culture towards corporate performance. Review of International Comparative Management/Revista de Management Comparat International, 21(3), 361-372.

Patyal, V. S., Ambekar, S., & Prakash, A. (2019). Organizational culture and total quality management practices in Indian construction industry. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. ahead-of-print. 10.1108/IJPPM-10-2018-0368.

Sabuhari, R., Sudiro, A., Irawanto, D., & Rahayu, M. (2020). The effects of human resource flexibility, employee competency, organizational culture adaptation and job satisfaction on employee performance. Management Science Letters, 10(8), 1775-1786.

Singh, V., Kumar, A., & Singh, T. (2018). Impact of TQM on organisational performance: The case of Indian manufacturing and service industry. Operations Research Perspectives, 5, 199-217.

Tedla, T. B. (2016). The impact of organizational culture on corporate performance. Walden University.

Thisera, T., & Sewwandi, E. (2018). Transformational leadership and employee engagement in hospitality sector in Sri Lanka. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 18, 26-33.

Uluskan, M., Godfrey, A. B., & Joines, J. A. (2017). Integration of Six Sigma to traditional quality management theory: an empirical study on organisational performance. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 28(13-14), 1526-1543.

Yu, Y., & Choi, Y. (2016). Stakeholder pressure and CSR adoption: The mediating role of organizational culture for Chinese companies. The Social Science Journal, 53(2), 226-235




How to Cite

Saeed Eshaq, M. D. A., & Zainol, Z. (2022). The Effect of TQM and Leadership on Organizational Performance of Dubai Police: The Mediating Role of Organizational Culture. International Business Education Journal, 15(1), 131–143.