Transformation and Transition to the Second Nature: PlannedCreative Destruction for Sustainable Cities
Keywords:Transformation and transition, planned creative destruction, sustainable city
Urban centres and towns in Malaysia today are the outcome of British administrative hegemonyfor over 650 years, encompassing parts of the period of western colonial era in the country.Malaysian urbanization involving the local populations - the Malays and all the Bumiputrapopulation of the Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak has a shorter history. Albeit the rise of theMalaccan empire around the 14th century dominated the life of people in most part of theMalaysian Peninsula, towns and cities of the country today are the creation of Britishintervention and administration ofthe country from about the 18th century. The Chinese tinminers soon invested in tin mining from capital accumulated while working in the mines as wellas from merchants in the more established port towns of Penang, Malacca and Singapore. TheBritish administration was tied with enormous capital for gold and tin mining to support theIndustrial Revolution in European countries at the time. Parallel to these activities, the Britishwas opening massive land mainly for rubber which had a high demand in Europe. Britisheconomic activities based on resource extraction could be categorised as Planned CreativeDestruction. This paper discusses the form of creative destruction that lead to sustainability inthe context ofenvironment, economy and society as well as culture via green technologies tobalance the previous destructions. This paper will also focus on the changes of land use in thecontext of urban sustainability and livability of the country that need the further attention andplanned for innovative restoration.