Effect of biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles on the vegetative growth of Amaranthus cruentus plants
Keywords:Zinc oxide nanoparticles, Characterization, Amaranthus cruentus plants, nanofertilizer, vegetative growth, yield percent
ZnO nanoparticles synthesis using Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina plant leaf extracts, their characterisation and use as nanofertilizer for growing black-seeded (BS) and pale-seeded (PS)Amaranthus cruentus plants is here presented. The nanoparticles (made possible by the flavones, phenols and flavonoids in the leaf extracts used) were of good crystalline structure, spherical in shape and in clusters. Their UV-vis peak absorbance occurred at 355 nm and 360 nm and their PL spectra showed a UV emission peak and a green emission peak. SEM images show nanoparticles sizes (which depended on the pH level of their synthesis solution and the type of plant leaf extract used) in the range 38 nm to 63 nm. When used as nanofertilizer for the Amaranthus cruentus growth, it was discovered that smaller nanoparticles produced taller plants and that both plant varieties tolerate nanofertilizer concentrations as high as 500 though nanofertilizer concentrations higher than this was detrimental to the plant growth. While the BS plants showed better shoot growth with broad leaves of area 60 , the PS plant variety had narrow and scanty leaves with leaf area as low as 4 The PS plants produced the highest yield of 60 % when treated with pH 10 500 Og-ZnO nanofertilizer but the lowest yield of 16 % when treated with pH 12 Og-ZnO nanofertilizer of concentration 500 . This work shows that these ZnO nanofertilizer enhanced the growth of the Amaranthus cruentus provided high concentrations of the fertilizers which could be toxic, are avoided.
Kochakinvzhad, H., Peyvast, G., Kashi, A., Olfati, J., Asadii, A. A comparison of organic and chemical fertilizers for tomato production. Journal of Organic Systems, 2012,7(2), 14-25.
Liu, R., Lal, R. Potentials of engineered nanoparticles as fertilizers for increasing agronomic productions. Science of the total environment,2015, 131-139. Retrieved from Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.104
Meghana, K. T., Wahiduzzaman, M., Vamsi, G. Nanofertilizers in Agriculture. ACTA SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE,2021, 5(3), 35-46.
Singh, N., Amist, N., Yadav, K., Singh, D., Pandy, J., & Singh, S. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as fertilizer for the germination, growth and metabolism of vegetable crops. Journal of nanoengineering and manufacturing, 2013,3(4), 353-364.
Venkatachalam, P., Jayaraj, M., Manikandan, R., Geetha, N., Rene, e. R., Sharma, N., & Sahi, S. Zinc oxide nanoparticles(ZnONPs) alleviate heavy metal-induced toxicity in Leucaena leucocephala seedlings: a physiochemical analysis. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 2017,110, 59-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.08.022
Zulfiqar, F., Navarro, M., Ashraf, M., Akram, N. A., & Munne-Bosch, S. Nanofertilizer use for sustainable agriculture:Advantages and limitations. Plant Science, 2019, 289. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci2019.110270
Qureshi, A., Singh, D., & Dwivedi, S. Nanofertilizers: A Novel Way for enhancing Nutrient use, efficiency and Crop Productivity. International Journal of current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2018,7(2), 3325-3335. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.702.398
Sabir, S., Arshad, M., & Chaudhari, S. K. Zinc oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture:Synthesis and Applications. Sci World, 2014, 1-8.
Adhikari, T., Kundu, S., Biswas, A., Tarafdar, J., & Rao, A. S. Characterization of zinc oxide Nano Particles and their effect on Growth of Maize(Zea Mays L.) Plant. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 2015, 38(10), 1505-1515. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2014.992536
Solanki, P., Bhargava, A., Chhipa, H., Jain, N., & Panwar, J. Nano-fertilizers and their smart delivery system. Nanotechnologies in Food and Agriculture, 2015, 81-101. doi:link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-14024-7-4
Prasad, T., Munaswamy, V., Reddy, K. R., Srevprasad, T., Sajanlal, P., & Pradeep, T. effect of nanoscale zinc oxide particles in the germination, growth and yield of peanut. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 2012, 35(6), 905-927. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2012.663443
Ramesh, M., Palanisamy, K., Babu , K., & Sharma, N. K. (2014). EFFECTS OF BULK & NANO-TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND ZINC. Journal of Global Biosciences, 3(2), 415-422.
Mfon, R. E., Odiaka, N. I., & Sarua, A. Interactive effect of colloidal solution of zinc oxide nanoparticles biosynthesized using Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts on the growth of Amaranthus cruentus seeds. African Journal of Biotechnology (academic journals), 2017, 16(26), 1481-1489. doi:10.5897/AJB2017.15952
Mfon, R. E., Hall, S. R., & Sarua, A. STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM AND VERNONIA AMYGDALINA PLANT LEAF EXTRACTS AND pH IN THE SYNTHESIS OF ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES. Scientia Africana, 2020, 19(1), 25-36.
Alias, S., Ismail, A., & Mohamad, A. Effect of pH on zinc oxide nanoparticles properties synthesized by Sol-gel configuration. Journal of Alloys and compounds (elsevier), 2010, 499(2), 231-237. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.03.174
Oskam, G. Metal oxide nanoparticles synthesis, Characterisation and Application. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 2006, 37(3), 161-164.
Ikono, R., Akwalia, P., Siswanto, W., Sukarto, A., & Rochman, N. T. Effect of pH variation on particle size and purity of nano zinc oxide synthesized by sol-gel method. International journal of engineering and Technology, 2012, 12(6), 5-9.
Cumming, G, Fidler, F, and Vaux D.L., Error bars in experimental biology. The Journal of cell Biology, 2007,177(1),1-5