Distribution of Lipid-soluble Vitamin Intake among Exclusively Breastfeeding Mothers and its Correlation with Human Milk’s Fatty Acids


  • Malissa Mohamed Biology Unit, Centre Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Dengkil, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Tengku Norbaya Tengku Azhar Biology Unit, Centre Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Dengkil, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Muhammad Rahimi Che Hassan Biology Unit, Centre Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Dengkil, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Umi Shakina Haridan Biology Unit, Centre Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Dengkil, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Noorakmal Abd Wahab Biology Unit, Centre Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Dengkil, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Siti Noorfahana Mohd Idris Biology Unit, Centre Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Dengkil, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Norhafizah Mohd Zazi Biology Unit, Centre Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Dengkil, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Radiah Abdul Ghani Department of Biomedical Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kampus Kuantan, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, MALAYSIA




Fatty Acids, Human Milk, Lipid-Soluble Vitamin


The lipid composition such as fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins is the second-most abundant composition of human milk providing dietary energy to infants. Micronutrient dietary intake such as vitamin A, D, E, K and C by breastfeeding mothers plays an important role in regulating the quality of human milk for optimum infant health and growth. The objective of this paper is to determine the distribution and correlation of maternal micronutrient intake of lipid-soluble vitamin and vitamin C towards fatty acids composition in human milk of exclusively breastfeeding mothers. A total of N=36 nursing women were recruited from Dengkil, Selangor, and Kuantan, Pahang, using a convenience sample method. A 24-hour dietary recall (24HR) was performed to collect thorough information on all foods and beverages ingested in the previous 24 hours by the respondent. The data on micronutrients intake per mother was tabulated using Nutritionist Pro. (NP) software. Following the diet recall, the human sample was collected in the next morning and subjected to fatty acid extraction and transesterification using the Blight and Dyer method. The composition of fatty acids methyl esters was analyzed and quantified by a gas chromatography (Agilent 7890A), equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) and Agilent Chromatography Workstation software.  The highest mean of intake occurred during the fifth to sixth months with, 1067.37±629.66 µg RE/day for vitamin A, during the first two months with, 0.89±0.84 µg RE/day of vitamin D, 5.85±2.49 mg/day while during the fifth to sixth months with, 17.28±11.74 µg /day of Vitamin E and at the first two months of lactation period with, 91.60±55.26 mg per day for vitamin C. Despite the fact that there was no significant correlation between vitamin intake and the fatty acid content of human milk, the study discovered a variety of patterns of correlation. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) in human milk were only positively correlated with vitamin D and C, while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were positively correlated with vitamin A, E, and K and negatively correlated with the rest. As a result, the fatty acid composition of human milk is less dependent on micronutrient dietary intake and more dependent on De-Novo synthesis in the mammary gland.


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How to Cite

Mohamed, M., Tengku Azhar, T. N., Che Hassan, M. R., Haridan, U. S., Abd Wahab, N., Mohd Idris, S. N., Mohd Zazi, N., & Abdul Ghani, R. (2022). Distribution of Lipid-soluble Vitamin Intake among Exclusively Breastfeeding Mothers and its Correlation with Human Milk’s Fatty Acids. EDUCATUM Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology, 9(2), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.37134/ejsmt.vol9.2.9.2022

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