VR360-INSPIRATION: Learning Media on Plant Structure and Function to Improve Student's Analytical Thinking


  • Tri Wahyuni Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, INDONESIA
  • Rizhal Hendi Ristanto Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, INDONESIA
  • Mieke Miarsyah Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, INDONESIA




virtual reality, analytical thinking, 4D, tour creator, 360, plant structure


Analytical thinking is an ability that is really needed in facing the future challenges, including in the industrial era 4.0. The ability to think analytically is important for students to solve problems in a lesson, including the plant structure and function material which is commonly carried out through observation and practicum activities. Limited conditions during the Covid-19 pandemic require mastery of analytical thinking skills in students through innovative learning media. For this reason, the Virtual Reality 360 Interactive Spherical Panorama Slide Presentation (VR360-INSPIRATION) learning media was developed with a 4D research and development model which aims to improve students' analytical thinking skills. Based on the results of the media validation test, the average value was 3.53 in the valid category. The results of the parametric descriptive test and the effectiveness of the media showed that the use of VR360-INSPIRATION media was significantly different from the results of the control group and had high effectiveness in improving students' analytical thinking skills.


Download data is not yet available.


Alizadeh, M. (2019). Virtual reality in the language classroom: Theory and practice. CALL-EJ, 20(3), 21-30.

Auld, L. W. S., & Pantelidis, V. S. (1994). Exploring virtual reality for classroom use. Tech Trends, 39(1), 29–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02763872

Bellucci, F., Peirce, C.S., & Herbart J. F. (2015). Logic, psychology, and apperception:Journal of the History of Ideas, 76(1): 69-91. Doi : 10.1353/jhi.2015.0007

Chirisa, I., et al. (2020). Scope for virtual tourism in the times of COVID-19 in select African destinations. Journal of Social Sciences, 64(3). 1-13. Doi : 10.31901/24566756.2020/64.1-3.2266

Chonkaew, P., Sukhummek, B., & Faikhamtab, C. (2016). Development of analytical thinking ability and attitudes towards science learning of grade-11 students through science technology engineering and mathematics (STEM education) in the study of stoichiometry. Journal of Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 17(4), 842-861. Doi : https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RP00074F

Cliffe, A.D. (2017). A review of the benefits and drawbacks to virtual field guides in today’s geoscience higher education environment. International Journal of Educational Technology, 14(28), 1-14. Doi : 10.1186/s41239-017-0066-x

Craig, A. B., Sherman, W. R., & Will, J. D. (2009). Developing virtual reality applications: Foundations of effective design. Morgan Kaufmann. t.ly/Nlay

Dubas, J.M. & Toledo, S.A. (2016). Taking higher order thinking seriously : using marzano's taxonomy in the economics classroom. Journal International Review of Economic Education, 21(C),12-20. Doi: 10.1016/j.iree.2015.10.005

Falah, J., Khan, S., Alfalah, T., Alfalah, S. F. M., Chan, W., Harrison, D. K., & Charissis, V. (2014). Virtual reality medical training system for anatomy education. 2014 Science and Information Conference, 752–758. Doi:10.1109/SAI.2014.6918271

Felinto, D.Q., Zang, A.R., & Velho, R. (2013). Production framework for full panoramic scenes with photorealistic augmented reality. Clei Electronic Journal, 17 (3), 1-18. Doi : 10.19153/cleiej.16.3.8.

Freina, L., & Ott, M. (2015). A literature review on immersive virtual reality in education: state of the art and perspectives. International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education, 133-141. https://doi.org/10.12753/2066-026X-15-020.

Hake, R. (1999). Analizing Change/Gain Scores. Indiana University.

Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2010). Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 33-55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00900.x

Howard, J. (2002). Eliciting young children's perceptions of play, work and learning using the activity apperception story procedure. Early Child Development and Care, 172(5), 489-502. Doi : 10.1080/03004430214548

Huang, H.M., Rauch, U., Liau, S.S. (2010). Investigating learners’ attitudes toward virtual reality learning environments: Based on a constructivist approach. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1171–1182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.014

Kao, C.Y. (2014). Exploring the relationships between analogical, analytical, and creative thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 13(2013), 80-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2014.03.006

Kavanagh, S., Reilly, A.L., Wünsche, B., & Plimmer, B. (2016). Creating 360° educational video: A case study. The 28th Australian conference, 34-39. Doi : 10.1145/3010915.3011001.

Kemendikbud. (2018). Perubahan atas peraturan menteri pendidikan dan kebudayaan nomor 24 tahun 2016 tentang kompetensi inti dan kompetensi dasar pelajaran pada kurikulum 2013 pada pendidikan dasar dan pendidikan menengah. Kemendikbud. https://jdih.kemdikbud.go.id/arsip/Permendikbud%20Nomor%2037%20Tahun%202018.pdf

Lloyd, A., Rogerson, S., & Stead, G. (2017). Imagining the potential for using virtual reality technologies in language learning. In M. Carrier, R. M. Damerow, & K. M. Bailey(Eds.). Digital language learning and teaching: Research, theory, and practice, 1, 222-234.

Marzano, R. J. & Kendall, J. S. (2007). The new taxonomy of educational objectives, Corwin Press,

Muhsin, N.,& Budiani, S. (2010). Logika. Universitas Terbuka.

OECD. (2019). PISA 2018 results: What students know and can do volume I. OECD. t.ly/SYBY

Papanastasiou, G., Drigas, A., Skianis, C., Lytras, M., & Papanastasiou, E. (2018). Virtual and augmented reality effects on K-12, higher and tertiary education students' twenty-first century skills. Virtual Reality, 23(4), 425-436. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0363-2

Pennycook, G., Fugelsang, J.A., & Koehler, D.J. Everyday consequences of analytic thinking. Psychological Science, 24(6) 425–432. Doi: 10.1177/0963721415604610

Priatna, N., Fauzan, M., Wardhani, S., & Widdiharto, R. (2017). Modul Pengembangan Keprofesian Berkelanjutan Mata Pelajaran Matematika Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) Terintegrasi Penguatan Pendidikan Karakter. Direktorat Pembinaan Guru Pendidikan Dasar, Direktorat Jenderal Guru dan Tenaga Kependidikan Kemdikbud. https://bit.ly/34b0NWR

Pujol, L., & Phil, M. (2005), Interactivity in virtual and multimedia environments: a meeting point for education and ICT in archaeological museums. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia: Virtual Reality at Work in the 21st Century, 37-52. ISBN 9789638046635

Pusmenjar. (2020). AKM dan Implikasinya pada Pembelajaran. Kemendikbud. https://hasilun.puspendik.kemdikbud.go.id/akm/file_akm2.pdf

Puteri, L.H. (2018). The apperception approach for stimulating student learning motivation. International Journal of Education, Training and Learning, 2(1), 7-12. Doi: 10.33094/6.2017.2018.21.7.12

Ramos, J. L. S., Dolipas, B. B., & Villamor, B. B. (2013). Higher order thinking skills and academic performance in physics of college students: A regression analysis. International Journal of Innovative Interdisciplinary Research, 4, 48-60.

Ratumanan, T. G. & Laurens, T. (2011). Evaluasi Hasil Belajar Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. Surabaya: UNESA Press.

Rizzo, A. A., Buckwalter, J. G., Bowerly, T., Van Der Zaag, C., Humphrey, L., Neumann, U., … Sisemore, D. (2000). The virtual classroom: A virtual reality environment for the assessment and rehabilitation of attention deficits. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3(3), 483–499. Doi:10.1089/10949310050078940

Sartono, N., Rusdi, & Handayani, R. (2017). Pengaruh pembelajaran process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) dan discovery learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir analisis siswa SMAN 27 Jakarta pada materi sistem imun. Biosfer: Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 10(1), 58-64. https://doi.org/10.21009/biosferjpb.10-1.8

Schott, C., & Marshall, S. (2018). Virtual reality and situated experiential education: A conceptualisation and exploratory trial. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 34(6), 843-852. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12293

See, Z.N., & Cheok, A.D. (2015). Virtual reality 360 interactive panorama reproduction obstacle and issue. Virtual Reality, 19(2), 71-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10055-014-0258-9

Shim, K.W., Park, J.S., Kim, H.S., Kim, J.H., Park, Y.C, & Ryu, H.I. (2010). Application of virtual reality technology in biology education. Journal of Biological Education, 37(2), 71-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2003.9655854

Sofrani,R., Kartika, J., & Suhita, A. (2009). Breakthrough Thinking: Bagaimana Cara Para Inovator Berpikir. Elex Media Komputindo.

Steuer, J. (1992). Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 73-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.

Sugiyono. (2015). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D). CV. Alfabeta.

Sumaryanta. (2018). Penilaian HOTS dalam Pembelajaran Matematika. Indonesian Digital Journal of Mathematics and Education, 8(8), 500–509. http://idealmathedu.p4tkmatematika.org/articles/IME-V5.8-02-Sumaryanta.pdf.

Thiagarajan, Sivasailam, et al. (1974). Instructional Development for Training Teachers Of Exceptional Children a Sourcebook. Indiana University.

Thiel, U. (1996). Between Wolff and Kant: Merian's theory of apperception. Journal of the History of Philosophy, 34(2), 213-232. Doi : 10.1353/hph.1996.0038

Thomson High School. (2019). Thomson, GA, high schoolers bring local history to life through tour creator. t.ly/inoN

Tsihouridis, C., Batsila, M., Vavougios, D., & Ioannidis, g.S. (2020). Virtual and augmented reality in science teaching and learning. The impact of the 4th industrial revolution on engineering education. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-40274-7_20

White, T.K., Whitaker, P., Gonya, T., Hein, R., Kroening, D., Lee, K., Lee, L., Lukowiak, A., & Hayes, E. (2009). The use of interrupted case studies to enhance critical thinking skills in Biology. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 10(1), 25–31. Doi: 10.1128/jmbe.v10.96

World Economic Forum. (2018). The future of jobs report 2018. World Economic Forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2018.pdf.

Yulina, I.K., Permanasari, A., Hernani, H., & Setiawan, W. (2019). Analytical thinking skill profile and perception of pre service chemistry teachers in analytical chemistry learning. International Conference on Mathematics and Science Education (ICMScE 2018). Doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1157/4/042046

Yuriza, P. E., Adisyahputra, A., & Sigit, D. V. (2018). Correlation between higher-order thinking skills and level of intelligence with scientific literacy on junior high school students. Biosfer: Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi, 11(1), 13-21. https://doi.org/10.21009/biosferjpb.11-1.2

Zarzo, E. (2015). The art of memory in the digital age. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 178(2015), 222 – 226. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.18




How to Cite

Wahyuni, T., Ristanto, R. H., & Miarsyah, M. (2021). VR360-INSPIRATION: Learning Media on Plant Structure and Function to Improve Student’s Analytical Thinking. EDUCATUM Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology, 8(2), 31–45. https://doi.org/10.37134/ejsmt.vol8.2.4.2021