Successional Plant Communities and Factors Affecting their Distribution at Sultan Azlan Shah Campus (KSAS), Proton City UPSI


  • H. Alimon
  • H. Ibrahim
  • M. Mohamed Ghazali
  • N. Mahalim
  • H. Murugaya


successional plant communities, distribution, abiotic factors, light intensity, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed


This study aimed to identify the distribution of plant species at Sultan Azlan Shah Campus (KSAS), UPSI before the construction of new campus was pursued. Several abiotic factors that might have affected the plant distribution including light intensity, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and soil characteristics were also studied. The line transect method was used in 5 different selected plots covering the flat deserted land (Plot A, D and E) up to the hills of 140 m altitude (Plot B and C) surrounding the gazetted area for the development. A total of 23 plant species have been identified with three most abundant species, Imperata cylindrica, Eleusine indica and Gleichenia linearis. The highest frequencies of plant species found in the studied plots are G. linearis and E. longofolium (12.3%), followed by Lycopodium cernum (10.5%) and I. cylindrica (8.8%). The abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature and relative humidity were higher than the average annual readings in Malaysia, clearly influenced the distribution of plant species. On the other hand, wind speed reading did not show uniform results at any plot areas but affected the type of successive vegetation at the studied area.


Download data is not yet available.


Adam, J.H., Hamid, H.A, Aizat Juhari, M.A., Ahmad Tarmizi, S.N. and Wan Mohd Razi Idris,W.M.
(2011). Species composition and dispersion pattern of pitcher plants recorded from Rantau
Abang in Marang District, Terengganu State of Malaysia. International Journal of Botany,

Bazzaz, F. A. (1979). Physiological ecology of plant succession. Annual Review of Ecology and
Systematics, 10, 351-371.

Berg, L. R. (2008). Introductory botany-plants, people and environment, second edition. US:
Thomson Brooks/Cole

Brewer, R. & McCann, M. T. (1982). Laboratory and field manual of ecology. US: Saunders College

Bush, M. B. (2000). Ecology of a changing planet second edition. US: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Cadenasso, M.L., Traynor, M.M. and Pickett, S.T.A. (1997). Functional location of forest edges:
gradients of multiple physical factors. Can. J. For. Res. 27:774-782.

Chong, J.L., Wickneswari, R., Ismail, B.S., and Salmijah, S. (2011). Genetic diversity of glycophosateresistant and glyphosate-susteptible Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn (Poaceae) populations from
Peninsular Malaysia Malays. Appl. Biol. 40(2): 27–36

Clarke, C. (2001). Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Sabah: Natural History
Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd.

Emery, S. (2012) Succession: A closer look. Nature Education Knowledge, 3(10):45.

Falvey, J.L. (1981). Imperata cylindrica and animal production in Sout East Asia. Tropical
Grasslands, 15(1), 52-56.

Hashim M.I., Che Ngah M.S.Y., and Nayan, N. (2012). Trend hujan jangka masa panjang dan
pengaruhnya terhadap hakisan permukaan: Implikasinya kepada tapak kampus baru Sultan
Azlan Shah, Tanjong Malim. GEOGRAFIA Online. TM Malaysia Journal of Society and
Space, 8(2), 38-51.

Hopkins, W. G. (2007). Introduction to plant physiology 4th edition. US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ibrahim, H., Hashim, M.I., Nayan, N., Omar Baki, M.H. and Che Ngah, M.S.Y. (2012). Hubung
kaitan jenis guna tanah terhadap suhu di Tanjong Malim, Perak. Journal of Techno-Social, 47.
Themed Issue: Malaysian Environment and Society © 2012, ISSN 2180-2491.

Königer, M., Delamaide, J.A., Marlow, E.D., Harris, G.C. (2008). Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with
altered chloroplast numbers and chloroplast movement exhibit impaired adjustments to both
low and high light. J Exp Bot. 2008; 59(9):2285-97. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ern099.

Krebs, C. J. (2009). Ecology, sixth edition. US: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

Kubota, Y., Katsuda, K. & Kikuzawa, K. (2005). Secondary succession and effects of clear-logging
on diversity in the subtropical forests on Okinawa Island, Southern Japan.

Miller, J.H. (2003). Nonnative invasive plants of Southern Forests. USDA Forest Service Southern
Research Station General Technical Report SRS-62.

Molles Jr., M. C. (2005). Ecology: Concepts and applications third edition. US: The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.

Ngah, N., Omar, D., Juraimi, A.S., and Hailmi, M.S. (2011). Leaf Surface Characteristics of Selected
Weed Species of Oil Palm. J. Agrobiotech, 2: 53-65, ©Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin.

Rusea, G., Chin, L. Y., Haja Maideen, Omar, H., Muskhazli, M., & Umi Kalsom, Y. (2012). The
distribution of ferns Gleicheniaceae in Peninsular Malaysia. Acta Biologica Malaysiana, 1,

Saberi Othman & Husni Ibrahim. (2006). Identification, distribution of flora and its relation to
edaphic factors at slim forest reserve – tools for the development of biology teaching module.

Truong, P., Gordon, I., Armstrong, F., and Shepherdson, J. (2002). Vetiver grass for saline land
rehabilitation under tropical and Mediterranean climate. Productive Use and Rehabilitation of
Saline Lands National Conference, Fremantle.

Van der Putten, W.H., Mortimer, S.R., Hedlund, K., Van Dijk, C., Brown, V.K., Lepš, J., RodriguezBarrueco, C., Roy, J., Diaz Len, T.A., Gormsen, D., Korthals, G.W., Lavorel, S., Santa Regina,
I., and Smilauer, P. (2000). Plant species diversity as a driver of early succession in abandoned
fields: a multi-site approach. Oecologia, 124:91–99.

Whitfeld, T. J. S., Kress, W. J., Erickson, D. L. and Weiblen, G. D. (2012). Change in community
phylogenetic structure during tropical forest succession: evidence from New Guinea. Ecography
35: 001–010, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2011.07181.x

Wild, A. and Wolf, G. (1980). The effect of different light intensities on the frequency and size
of stomata, the size of cells, the number, size and chlorophyll content of chloroplasts in the
mesophyll and the guard cells during the ontogeny of primary leaves of Sinapis alba. Zeitschrift
für Pflanzenphysiologie, 97 (4):325-342.

Yeoh, C. H. (1980). Control of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (lalang) in Malaysia s smallholdings.
Proceedings of a BIOTROP Workshop on Alang alang, Bogor, 1976: 89-111.




How to Cite

Alimon, H., Ibrahim, H., Ghazali, M. M., Mahalim, N., & Murugaya, H. (2015). Successional Plant Communities and Factors Affecting their Distribution at Sultan Azlan Shah Campus (KSAS), Proton City UPSI. EDUCATUM Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology, 2(2), 1–12. Retrieved from