Advancing Malaysia’s Recreational Studies: Application of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in Validation of Adventure-Based Mental Toughness Model (AbMTM)


  • Mohd Shariman Shafie Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, MALAYSIA
  • Md Amin Md Taff Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Sultan Idris Education University, MALAYSIA
  • Zuraidah Zainol Faculty of Management and Economics, Sultan Idris Education University, MALAYSIA
  • Siti Musliha Mat Rasid Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Sultan Idris Education University, MALAYSIA
  • Omar Firdaus Mohd Said Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Sultan Idris Education University, MALAYSIA
  • Mohamed Azizul Mohamed Afandi Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, MALAYSIA



mental toughness, adventure-based program


Over decades, there are numerous training programs with the intervention of adventure-based programs have been implemented. The nature of adventure-based programs is also often associated with the development of psychological aspects including mental toughness. However, the fact is the term of mental toughness is more focused in the perspective of sports. Since it was first introduced in the 80's, various models and measuring instruments have been developed and are clearly more focused on the sports perspective. The issues arises when the sport-based mental toughness model is applied in adventure-based programs. Work on this matter, Adventure-based Mental Toughness Model (AbMTM) was developed with the application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). SEM was well known in development studies because of the effectiveness of its statistical analysis to determine the value or validity of the measured focus. It turned out to be very influential and applied in various fields of study. A total of 507 respondents were involved among individuals who had been involved in adventure-based programs in 2019 to 2020. As results, SEM analysis through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Goodness of Fit (GoF) strongly suggests the 7 dimensions of AbMTM was indicates the value of an excellent fit model. The results of this study, provide a new horizon and advancing the current field of recreational study.


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How to Cite

Shafie, M. S., Md Taff, M. A., Zainol, Z., Mat Rasid, S. M., Mohd Said, O. F., & Mohamed Afandi, M. A. (2022). Advancing Malaysia’s Recreational Studies: Application of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in Validation of Adventure-Based Mental Toughness Model (AbMTM). Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 11(1), 38–44.

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