The Influence of the Coach’s Perceived Leadership Style and Behavior on Athletes’ Aggression and Well-being

  • Jia Xin Kho Faculty of Social Sciences and Liberal Arts, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
  • Ching Sin Siau Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
  • Vimala Govindasamy Faculty of Social Sciences and Liberal Arts, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
  • Ho Meng Chuan Faculty of Social Sciences and Liberal Arts, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Keywords: coach, leadership styles, athletes, aggression, wellbeing


Coaches play an important role in developing athletes in terms of skills, techniques and performance. Coaches differ      in the way they lead and train the athletes, and yet there is a lack of study in Malaysia which investigates the significance of these coach characteristics on the mental health of athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of coach’s perceived leadership style and behavior on the level of young athletes’ aggression and well-being. This cross-sectional study targeted young athletes aged between 14-35 years old. Apart from demographic information, the following questionnaires were used: Leadership Scale for Sports, Aggression Scale, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. A total of 150 participants responded to the pen-and-paper survey (75 children and 75 adults). Two multiple regression models were fitted. The results showed that aggression was significantly predicted by well-being (β=-0.194, p=0.016) and depression (β=-0.335, p<0.001); training and instruction (β=0.345, p=0.003) and aggression (β=-0.234, p=0.002) significantly predicted well-being. The implications of this study were that coaches should be made aware that their leadership and behavior may have an influence on the well-being of the athletes. Coaches should be enhanced in their ability to provide training and instruction behavior when conducting their training activities to improve athletes’ skills, techniques and tactics.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad Radzi, J., Salimee, M. F., & Mohd Kassim, A. F. (2021). Athletes’ perception of their coach transformational leadership and coach-athlete relationship in team and individual sports. Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 10(1), 24-31.

Alexandra, B., Stefanos, P., & Vassilis, G. (2015). Verbal aggression in basketball: perceived coach use and athlete intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 15(1), 96.

Alvarez, M. S., Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., & Duda, J. L. (2012). The coach-created motivational climate, young athletes’ well-being, and intentions to continue participation. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 6(2), 166-179.

Amorose, A. J., Anderson-Butcher, D., Newman, T. J., Fraina, M., & Iachini, A. (2016). High school athletes’ self-determined motivation: The independent and interactive effects of coach, father, and mother autonomy support. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 26, 1-8.

Blain-Arcaro, C., & Vaillancourt, T. (2017). Longitudinal associations between depression and aggression in children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(5), 959-970.

Borghi, G., Borges, P. H., Menegassi, V. M., & Rinaldi, G. S. W. (2017). Relationship between preferred leadership style and motivation in young soccer regional players. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(4), 2599-2603.

Bum, C. H., & Shin, S. H. (2015). The Relationships between Coaches' Leadership Styles, Competitive State Anxiety, and Golf Performance in Korean Junior Golfers. Sport Science Review, 24(5-6), 371-386.

Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). The aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(3), 452.

Chelladurai, P., & Saleh, S. D. (1980). Dimensions of leader behavior in sports: Development of a leadership scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2(1), 34-45.

Cho, S., Choi, H., & Kim, Y. (2019). The relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, competitive trait anxiety, and athlete burnout: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8), 1424.

Clarke, A., Friede, T., Putz, R., Ashdown, J., Martin, S., Blake, A., ... & Stewart-Brown, S. (2011). Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): validated for teenage school students in England and Scotland. A mixed methods assessment. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 1-9.

Elmasry, N. M., Fouad, A. A., Khalil, D. M., & Sherra, K. S. (2016). Physical and verbal aggression among adolescent school students in Sharkia, Egypt: prevalence and risk factors. Egyptian journal of psychiatry, 37(3), 166.

Heil, S. (2018). What are preferred leadership styles of athletes from their coaches. Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects, 50. Retrieved from

Humphery, J. H. (2008). Sports and athletics developments. Nova Publisher.

Institute for Public Health. (2020). National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019: Key Findings. Retrieved from

Jooste, J., & Kubayi, A. N. (2018). Perceived coach leadership style and psychological well-being among South African national male wheelchair basketball players. Disability and Health Journal, 11(4), 655-659.

Kamis, H., Ahmad Radzi, J., & Mohd Kassim, A. F. (2021). Does Coaching Effectiveness and Coach-Athlete Relationship Moderate the Anxiety Among Athletes?. Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 10(2), 19-25.

Karim, Z. A. (2016). Malaysian football coaches: The key challenges. International Journal of Health, Physical Education and Computer Science in Sports, 24(1), 18-24.

Karim, Z. B., & Razak, N. (2018). Lesson Learned from Coaches of Malaysia National Football Development Programme (NFDP): Preferred Career Development Pathway and Accredited Coaching Course. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(6).

Krasilshchikov, O. (2015). Contemporary Issues in Coach Education and Learning: Coaching in Modern Society – A review (71 - 77). Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 4(1), 71-77. Retrieved from

Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, r. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: A new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatirc Annals, 30(9), 1-7.

Mazer, J. P., Barnes, K., Grevious, A., & Boger, C. (2013). Coach verbal aggression: A case study examining effects on athlete motivation and perceptions of coach credibility. International Journal of Sport Communication, 6(2), 203-213.

McKay, M. T., Perry, J. L., & Harvey, S. A. (2016). The factorial validity and reliability of three versions of the Aggression Questionnaire using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 12-15.

Morren, M., & Meesters, C. (2002). Validation of the Dutch version of the Aggression Questionnaire in adolescent male offenders. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 28(2), 87-96.

National Sport Policy. (2009). National Sport Policy. Putrajaya, Malaysia: MYS.

Price, B. (2017). Three problems facing Malaysian sport. United States Sports Academy Malaysia.

Rao, A. L., & Hong, E. S. (2016). Understanding depression and suicide in college athletes: emerging concepts and future directions. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50, 136-137.

Sherina, M. S., Arroll, B., & Goodyear-Smith, F. (2012). Criterion validity of the PHQ-9 (Malay version) in a primary care clinic in Malaysia. The Medical Journal of Malaysia, 67(3), 309-315.

Sherrill, A. M., & Bradel, L. T. (2017). Contact sport participation predicts instrumental aggression, not hostile aggression, within competition: quasi-experimental evidence. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 9(1), 50-57.

Singh, P. (2018). Aggression and sports competition anxiety between university level male badminton and basketball players. International Journal of Yoga, Physiotherapy and Physical Education, 3(1), 137-139.

Sofia, R. M., & Cruz, J. F. A. (2015). Self-control as a mechanism for controlling aggression: A study in the context of sport competition. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 302-306.

Sofia, R., & Cruz, J. F. A. (2017). Unveiling anger and aggression in sports: The effects of type of sport, competitive category and success level. Revista de psicología del deporte, 26(2), 21-28.

Stenling, A., Lindwall, M., & Hassmén, P. (2015). Changes in perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in young elite athletes. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4(1), 50.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics, 6th Edition. California: Pearson.

Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., ... & Stewart-Brown, S. (2007). The Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health and Quality of life Outcomes, 5(1), 1-13.

Trinidade, W., & Raizada, S. (2020). Effect of sport aggression on the psychosocial realm of athletes. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 23, 231-756.

Xia, N. G., Lin, J. H., Ding, S. Q., Dong, F. R., Shen, J. Z., Du, Y. R., ... & Xu, H. Q. (2019). Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (C-PHQ-9) in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 95, 65-69.

How to Cite
Kho, J. X., Siau, C. S., Govindasamy, V., & Meng Chuan, H. (2022). The Influence of the Coach’s Perceived Leadership Style and Behavior on Athletes’ Aggression and Well-being. Jurnal Sains Sukan & Pendidikan Jasmani, 11(1), 1-10.