The Effects of Privacy Awareness, Security Concerns and Trust on Information Sharing in Social Media among Public University Students in Selangor


  • Anjuman Ara Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Zuraidah Zainol Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Balaganesh Duraisamy Faculty of Computer Science and Multimedia, Berlin School of Business & Innovation, Germany



Privacy Awareness, Security Concerns, Trust, Information Sharing


The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect privacy awareness as well as security concerns both on trust, privacy awareness, security concerns and further trust on information sharing then privacy awareness only on security concerns on platforms for social networking. A quantaitative approach was used in this research. 500 students from public universities who ranged in age of 18 to 29 were used as a selected sample for the data collection. A questionnaire as an instrument was used to obtain the actual data and the selection of respondents was made using the systematic street-intercept method. To analyse the data, descriptive analysis and covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) were employed. Outcomes of the research revealed that privacy awareness (PA) significantly predicts security concerns (SC). A significant predictor of trust is shown to have both PA and SC. However, the effect of PA is positive, while SC is negative. Only PA and trust significantly affect the information sharing (IS), not SC. Trust is more likely to increase the willingness to share information, but the higher the SC, the less likely for the students to share information. In conclusion, to promote IS on social media platforms, trust should be built among the users. Despite that privacy awareness could reduce the willingness to share information, it plays a critical role to build trust. In implication, to win and secure the online users, the online service providers and sellers should overcome the trust and privacy issues.  


Download data is not yet available.


Aljohani M., Nisbet, A., & Blincoe, K. (2016). A survey of social media users’ privacy setting & information disclosure. The Proceeding of 14th Australian Information Security Management Conference 67-75.

Almadhoun, N., Dominic, P., & Woon, F. (2011). Perceived Security, Privacy, and Trust concerns within Social Networking Sites. IEEE International Conference on Control System, Computing and Engineering. 426-431.

Ampong, G., Mensah, A., Adu, A., Addae, J., Omoregie, O. K. & Ofori, K. S. (2018). Examining self-disclosure on social networking sites: A flow theory and privacy perspective. Behavioral Sciences. 8(6), 1-17.

Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. 2012. Specification, Evaluation, and Interpretation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 40(1): 8-34.

Baruh, L., Secinti, E., Cemalcilar, Z. (2017). Online privacy concerns and privacy management: a meta-analytical review. J. Commun. 67, 26–53.

Beldad, A. D. (2015). Sharing to be sociable, posting to be popular: factors influencing non-static personal information disclosure on Facebook among young Dutch users. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 11(3/4), 357.

Bernama. Malaysia ranks top 5 globally in mobile social penetration, highest in region. Retrieved January 31, 2019, from

Jai, T. M., & King, N. J. (2016). Privacy versus reward: Do loyalty programs increase consumers’ willingness to share personal information with third-party advertisers and data brokers? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 28, 296–303.

Bhattacherjee, A. 2012. Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices. 2nd edition. Zurich, Switzerland: Creative Commons Attribution

Cater, T. & Cater, B. 2010. Product and Relationship Quality Influence on Customer Commitment and Loyalty in B2b Manufacturing Relationships. Industrial Marketing Management 39(8): 1321-1333.

Chiu, C.-M. & Wang, E. T. G. 2008. Understanding Web-Based Learning Continuance Intention: The Role of Subjective Task Value. Information & Management 45(3): 194-201.

Cho, H., Lee, J., Chung, S. (2010). Optimistic bias about online privacy risks: testing the moderating effects of perceived controllability and prior experience. Comput. Hum. Behav. 26 (5), 987–995.

Cho, H., Rivera-Sánchez, M., & Lim, S. S. (2009). A multinational study on online privacy: Global concerns and local responses. New Media & Society, 11(3), 395–416.

Clement, J (2020). Social media-Statistics & Facts. Retrieved from:

Dhami, A., Agarwal, N., Chakraborty, T., Singh, B. P., & Minj, J. (2013). Impact of trust, security and privacy concerns in social networking: An exploratory study to understand the pattern of information revelation in Facebook. Proceedings of the 2013 3rd IEEE International Advance Computing Conference, IACC 2013. 2, 465-469.

Dinev, T., & Hart, P. (2006). An extended privacy calculus model for e-commerce transactions. Information Systems Research, 17(1), 61-80.

Dwyer, C., Roxanne Hiltz, S., Passerini, K., & Roxanne, S. (2007) Trust and Privacy Concerns Within Social Networking Sites: A Comparison of Facebook and MySpace. AIS eLibrary. 12-31.

Fairbairn, W., & Kessler, A. (2015). Practical Advice for Selecting Sample Sizes. Dced, (May), 1–11. Available from:

Flavián, C. and Guinalíu, M. (2006) ‘Consumer trust, perceived security and privacy policy: three basic elements of loyalty to a web site’, Industrial Management and Data Systems, Vol. 106, No. 5, pp.601–620.

Fogel, J., Nehmad, E. (2009). Internet social network communities: risk taking, trust, and privacy concerns. Computers in Human Behavior 25, 153–160.

Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. 1981. Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research 18(1): 39-50.

Gao, S., Mokhtarian, P. L. & Johnston, R. A. 2008. Nonnormality of Data in Structural Equation Models. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2082(1): 116-124.

Garson, G. D. 2012a. Structural Equation Modeling. Asheboro, NC USA: Statistical Associates Publishing

Garson, G. D. 2012b. Testing Statistical Assumptions. Asheboro, NC USA: Statistical Associates Publishing

Gaskin, J. 2012a. Common Method Bias. Gaskination's Statistics. [20th December 2021]

Gaskin, J. 2012b. Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Gaskination's StatWiki. [20th December 2021]

Gaskin, J. 2013. Data Screening. Gaskination's StatWiki. [December 20, 2021]

Gefen, D. (2002). Reflections on the dimensions of trust and trustworthiness among online consumers. ACM SIGMIS Database: Database Adv. Inf. Syst. 33, 38–53.

Gouldner, A.W., (1960). The norm of reciprocity: a preliminary statement, Am. Sociol. Rev. 25 (2) 161–178.

Grazioli S. & Jarvenpaa, S.L. (2000). Perlis of Internet Fraud: An Empirical Investigation of Deception and Trust with Internet Consumers. Systems and Humans, 30(4), 395-410.

Gupta, A., & Dhami, A. (2015). Measuring the impact of security, trust and privacy in information sharing: A study on social networking sites. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice. 17(1), 43-53.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. 2010. Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. 7th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M. & Mena, J. A. 2012. An Assessment of the Use of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing Research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 40(3): 414-433.

Hall, H., Widén, G., & Paterson, L. (2010). Not what you know, nor who you know, but who you know already: Examining online information sharing behaviours in a blogging environment through the lens of social exchange theory. Libri. 60(2), 117-128.

Haris@Harib, A. R., Sarijan, S., & Hussin, N. (2017). Information Security Challenges: A Malaysian Context. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(9).

Hertzog, M. A. 2008. Considerations in Determining Sample Size for Pilot Studies. Research in Nursing & Health 31(2): 180–191.

Hoadley, C.M.; Xu, H.; Lee, J.J.; Rosson, M.B. (2010). Privacy as information access and illusory control: The case of the Facebook News Feed privacy outcry. Electron. Commer. Res. Appl. 9, 50–60.

Homans, G. (1961). Social Behavior. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World

Jarvenpaa, S., Leidner, D. (1998). Communication and trust in global virtual teams. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3 (4).

JithiKrishna P P, Suresh Kumar R and Sreejesh V K, (2015). Impact of trust, privacy and security in Facebook information. International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS), 4(6), 5–9. Retrieved from:

Joe, M. (2014). A Survey of Various Security Issues in Online Social Networks. International Journal of Computer Networks and Applications. 1(1), 11-14. Available from:

Kayes, I., Kourtellis, N., Bonchi, F., & Iamnitchi, A. (2015). Privacy concerns vs. user behavior in community question answering. Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2015. 681-688.

Kisekka, V.; Bagchi-Sen, S.; Rao, H.R. (2013). Extent of private information disclosure on online social networks: An exploration of Facebook mobile phone users. Comput. Hum. Behav. 29, 2722–2729.

Kline, R. B. 2011. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. 3rd edition. New York: The Guilford Press

Kolotylo-Kulkarni, M., Xia, W., & Dhillon, G. (2021). Information disclosure in e-commerce: A systematic review and agenda for future research. Journal of Business Research, 126, 221-238.

Krasnova, H., Spiekermann, S., Koroleva, K., & Hildebrand, T. (2010). Online social networks: Why we disclose. Journal of Information Technology, 25(2), 109–125.

Krejcie, R.V. & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.

Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission. (2017). Section 3: Main Findings. Internet Users Survey 2017, 8–34. Retrieved from*spi/i?SEARCH=18434711%5Cn$USEG&centro=%24USEG&d=1

Malhotra N.K. (2002). Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation (4th Eds). United State, MA: Pearson Education, Inc

McKnight, D.H.; Lankton, N.; Tripp, J. (2011). Social Networking Information Disclosure and Continuance Intention: A Disconnect. In Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Washington, DC, USA, 4–7, pp. 1–10.

Ministry of Education, M. (2019). Educational Planning and Research Division Ministry Of Education Malaysia With Best Compliments. Available from:

Mohd Azul Mohamad Salleh, Ali Salman & Nurul Madiha Mohd Ilham (2015). Kesedaran Terhadap Isu Pengawasan Sewaktu Mengguna Aplikasi Media Sosial. Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 10(2), 217-229. Retrieved from

O’Bien, D.; Torres, A. (2012). Social Networking and Online Privacy: Facebook Users’ Perceptions. Ir. J. Manag. 31, 63–97. Available from:

Padyab, A., Päivärinta, T., Ståhlbröst, A., Bergvall. K & Birgitta (2019). Awareness of Indirect Information Disclosure on Social Network Sites. SAGE Journals. 1-14.

Pallant, J. 2007. Spss Survival Manual: A Step-by-Step Guide to Data Analysis Using Spss for Windows. 3rd Edition. New York: Open University Press

Paramarta, V., Jihad, M., Dharma, A., Hapsari, I. C., Sandhyaduhita, P. I., Hidayanto, & Achmad, N. (2019). Impact of user awareness, trust, and privacy concerns on sharing personal information on social media: Facebook, twitter, and Instagram. 2018 International Conference on Advanced Computer Science and Information Systems, ICACSIS 2018. 271-276.

Perrin, A. (2015). Social Media Usage: 2005-2015, (October), 2005–2015. Retrieved from:

Petronio, S. (2004). Boundary of Privacy: Dialectics of Disclosure; State University of New York Press: Albany, NY, USA

Petronio, S.; Hernandez, R. (2019). Communication Privacy Management Theory.

Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B. & Podsakoff, N. P. 2012. Sources of Method Bias in Social Science Research and Recommendations on How to Control It. Annual Review of Psychology 63(1): 539-569.

Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y. & Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies. Journal of applied psychology 88(5): 879- 903.

Ramayah, T., Lee, J. W. C. & Mohamad, O. 2010. Green Product Purchase Intention: Some Insights from a Developing Country. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54(12): 1419-1427.

Reddy, K. & Reddy, E. S. (2019). Integrated approach to detect spam in social media networks using hybrid features. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE). 9(1), 562.

Reisinger, Y. & Mavondo, F. 2007. Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 21(4): 41-71.

Saleh Zolait, A., Al-Anizi, R., Ababneh, S., BuAsalli, F. and Butaiba, N. (2014). User awareness of social media security: The public sector framework. International Journal of Business Information Systems. 17(3), 261-282.

Saleh, Zakaria and Mashour, A. (2016). Evaluating Security Awareness Impact On Perceived Risk and Trust: The Case of Social Networks. International Journal in IT and Engineering, 4(5), 99–110. Available from:

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. 2009. Research Methods for Business Students. 5th edition. Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Savolainen, R. (2017). Information sharing and knowledge sharing as communicative activities. Information Research, 22(3), 767. Available from:

Schumacker, R. E. & Lomax, R. G. 2004. A Beginner's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. Second edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Shin, D. (2010). The effects of trust, security and privacy in social networking: A security-based approach to understand the pattern of adoption. Interacting with Computers. 22(5), 428-438.

Sriratanaviriyakul, N., Nkhoma, M., Felipe, A. L., Cao, T. K., Ha Tran, Q., Epworth, R., Shankaranarayanan, A, Quang, H. Le. (2017). ASEAN users’ privacy concerns and security in using online social networks. International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics, 9(1), 84–99.

Surma, J. (2016). Social exchange in online social networks. the reciprocity phenomenon on Facebook. Computer Communications, 73, 342–346.

Taddei, S., & Contena, B. (2013). Privacy, trust and control: Which relationships with online self-disclosure? Computers in Human Behavior. 29(3), 821–826.

Tuunainen V. K., Pitkanen, O. and Hovi, M. (2009). Users’ Awareness of Privacy on Online Social Networking Sites — Case Facebook. 22nd Bled eConference eEnablement: Facilitating an Open, Effective and Representative eSociety.

Vemprala, N., & Dietrich, G. (2019). A Social Network Analysis (SNA) Study On Data Breach Concerns Over Social Media. Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 6, 7186–7193.

Willoughby, M. (2018). A review of the risks associated with children and young people’s social media use and the implications for social work practice. Journal of Social Work Practice. 0533(5), 1-14.

Yuen Meikeng, Lim May Lee, & Clarissa Say, (2018). Our teens are bullies. Retrieved 18 March, 2018, from

Zaefarian, G., Henneberg, S. C. & Naudé, P. 2013. Assessing the Strategic Fit between Business Strategies and Business Relationships in Knowledge- Intensive Business Services. Industrial Marketing Management 42(2): 260- 272.

Zhang, Z., & Gupta, B.B. (2016). Social media security and trustworthiness: Overview and new direction. Future Generation Computer Systems, 86, 914- 925.

Zhou, T., Li, H. (2014). Understanding mobile SNS continuance usage in China from the perspectives of social influence and privacy concerns. Comput. Hum. Behav. 37, 283–289.

Zlatolas, L. N., Welzer, T., Heričko, M. & Hölbl, M. (2015). Privacy antecedents for SNS self-disclosure: The case of Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior. 45, 158-167.




How to Cite

Anjuman Ara, Zuraidah Zainol, & Duraisamy, B. (2022). The Effects of Privacy Awareness, Security Concerns and Trust on Information Sharing in Social Media among Public University Students in Selangor. International Business Education Journal, 15(2), 93–110.