Communicative Readiness and Motivation among UNHCR Refugee Teachers of English in Malaysia

  • Christina Ong Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR)
  • Jian Mei Chai Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR)
  • Chee Seng Tan Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR)
  • Swee Mee Tan Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR)
Keywords: refugees, English teachers, willingness to communicate, communication apprehension, language learning motivation


To explore communicative readiness and motivation among refugee teachers in Malaysia, 30 refugee teachers registered under UNHCR were recruited Drawing on a quantitative approach, questionnaires consisting of 20 items adapted from McCroskey and Richmond’s (2013) Willingness to Communicate Scale, Gardner’s (2004) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) and Fulmer’s (2010) Organisational Communication Survey were distributed. The data analysis revealed that communication apprehension was negatively associated with willingness to communicate and anxious teachers were less willing to communicate with strangers and acquaintances. A negative relationship between interpersonal conversation subscale of communication apprehension and intrinsic motivation was also observed. Those who regarded learning English as important were more willing to converse in the said language. It is hoped that this study could serve as an introductory guide to NGOs and existing voluntary groups when designing materials, syllabus and curriculum specifications for refugee teachers.


How to Cite
Ong, C., Mei Chai, J., Seng Tan, C., & Mee Tan, S. Communicative Readiness and Motivation among UNHCR Refugee Teachers of English in Malaysia. EDUCATUM Journal of Social Sciences (EJoSS), 4(1), 1-9. Retrieved from